Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. sem-   'one, some, together'

Semantic Field(s): One, to Join, Unite


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: -som enc that one RPN
Old English: same adv also, similarly RPN
sim(b)el, symbel adj/adv continual, perpetual; ever, always ASD
simle adv ever, always LRC
-sum sfx -some W7
sum indef.adj/pron some LRC
Middle English: acolite n acolyte W7
alsaume adv all together MEV
as(s)emblen, as(s)emlen vb to assemble W7/CDC
assembly n assembly, joining of battle MEV
assimilaten vb to assimilate AHD
bisemen vb to beseem AHD
omelie n homily W7
resemblen vb to resemble W7
sam(e), samen, somyn adv together MEV
same adj same W7
semely adj seemly W7
semen vb to seem W7
simple adj simple W7
simplicite n simplicity W7
single adj single W7
-som sfx -some W7
som indef.adj/pron some W7
syn- pfx syn- W7
English: acolyte n minister's assistant in liturgical service AHD/W7
anacoluthon n syntactic incoherence/inconsistency within sentence AHD/W7
anomalous adj abnormal, deviating from general rule/method/analogy AHD/W7
assemble vb to convoke, collect in/as one place/group AHD/W7
assembly n set of persons gathered for purpose W7
assimilate vb to take in as nourishment, absorb into system AHD/W7
beseem vb to befit, be fitting/becoming/suitable W7
ensemble n group constituting a whole/producing single effect AHD/W7
haploid adj having half the number of chromosomes characteristic of somatic cells AHD/W7
hendecasyllabic adj re: (verses of) 11 syllables AHD/W7
heter(o)- pfx other, different AHD
heterodox adj contrary to/different from acknowledged standard AHD/W7
heteroecious adj passing different life-cycle stages on alternate/unrelated hosts AHD/W7
heterogeneous adj mixed, consisting of dissimilar parts AHD/W7
heteronym n two/more words with same spelling but different meanings/pronunciations AHD
heteronymous adj re: heteronym AHD
homeo- pfx like, similar AHD
homily n religious discourse before congregation AHD/W7
hom(o)- pfx same, like AHD
homolographic adj preserving mutual relations of parts AHD/W7
homosexual adj/n (re:) individual attracted to same sex TLL
hyphen n punctuation mark (-) AHD/W7
resemble vb.trans to be like/similar to AHD/W7
sambal n spicy condiment of Malaysia/Indonesia AHD
same adj resembling in all relevant respects AHD/W7
samhita n collection of sacred/devotional Sanskrit hymns AHD
samizdat n secret publication/distribution of Soviet-banned literature AHD
Samkhya, Sankhya prop.n orthodox Hindu philosophy, lit. based on calculation LRC
samsara n eternal cycle: birth, misery, death AHD/W7
seem vb.intrans to appear, give impression of being AHD/W7
seemly adj handsome, good-looking AHD/W7
semplice adj simple, unaffected AHD/W7
sempre adv always AHD/W7
Simbelmynë prop.n a.k.a. Evermind in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
similar adj marked by resemblance/correspondence AHD/W7
simple adj innocent, free from guile AHD/W7
simplex adj single, simple AHD/W7
simplicity n state of being simple/uncompounded AHD/W7
simultaneous adj coincident, existing/occurring at same time AHD/W7
single adj solitary, singular; unmarried AHD/W7
-some adj.sfx characterized by (specified) thing/state/action/quality AHD/W7
some indef.adj/pron re: one unknown/undetermined/unspecified unit/thing AHD/W7
soviet n elected governmental council in Communist country AHD/W7
sym-, syn- pfx (along/together) with AHD/W7
synalepha n blending of successive vowels into one syllable AHD
syngeneic adj genetically identical, closely related, immunologically compatible AHD
synonymous adj having same/similar meaning AHD
synost(e)osis n union via bone, fusion of normally separate bones CDC/AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: sum pron.indef some ASD
Old Saxon: sum pron.indef some ASD
Old High German: -sam sfx -some W7
sama adj same W7
samo adj same RPN
sum adj/pron.indef some W7/ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: sama vb to beseem LRC
saman adv together LRC
samr adj same LRC
samr adj same W7
soemiligr adj seemly, becoming W7
soemr adj seemly, becoming W7
sóma, sómad vb to beseem, become LRC
sumr adj some LRC
Icelandic: sumr pron.indef some ASD
Danish: som conj as TLL
Swedish: som conj as TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: sama adj same LRC
sinteins adj daily LRC
sums pron.indef some, one LRC
Latin: adsimilare, assimilare vb to feign, imitate, simulate CDC
assimilare vb to assemble, bring together CDC
assimulo, assimulare vb to feign, make similar W7
hendecasyllabus n.masc line of eleven syllables W7
insimul adv at same time W7
semper adv ever, always W7
sim- pfx one W7
similis adj like, similar RPN
similo, similare vb to copy W7
simplex, simplicis adj single, simple, unmixed W7
simplicitas, simplicitatis n.fem simplicity W7
simplus adj plain, single W7
simul adv together, at same time LRC
simulis adj like W7
simulo, simulare vb to feign, copy, represent W7
singulus adj only one W7
syn- pfx syn- W7
Vulgar Latin: assimulo, assimulāre vb to compare, imitate W7
Late Latin: anacoluthon adj inconsistent in logic W7
anomalus adj anomalous AHD
homilia n.fem discourse, homily W7
Middle Latin: assimulare vb to assemble, bring together CDC
Medieval Latin: acoluthus adj that follows W7
acolytus n acolyte AHD
assimilatus vb.ptc assimilated W7
assimilo, assimilare vb to assimilate W7
simultaneus adj simultaneous, at same time W7
Old Spanish: asemblar vb to assemble CDC
Old French: acolite n.masc follower W7
assemblee n assembly, joining of battle MEV
as(s)embler, assambler vb to gather, assemble W7/CDC
resembler vb to resemble W7
sembler vb to seem, be like W7
simple adj plain, artless, uncomplicated W7
syn- pfx syn- W7
Middle French: omelie n.fem discourse, homily W7
resembler vb to resemble W7
simplicité n.fem simplicity W7
French: ensemble adv together W7
similaire adj similar W7
Old Occitan: assemblar, asemlar vb to assemble CDC
Italian: assemblare, assembrare vb to assemble CDC
semplice adj simple, unmixed W7/CID
sempre adv always, ever W7/CID
Lithuanian: sù prep with LRC
Old Church Slavonic: samъ adj same RPN
samъ pron self, oneself LRC
prep with LRC
sъvęzati, sъvęzajǫ, sъvęzaješi vb to tie, bind LRC
Russian: so prep with W7
Albanian: gjith adj all, whole, entire IEW
gjithmonë adv always LRC
Greek: akolouthos adj following W7
ἅμα adv at the same time LRC
hama adv together W7
hamē adv somehow W7
anakolouthon adj inconsistency in logic W7
anakolouthos adj inconsistent in logic W7
anōmalos adj uneven W7
haploeidēs adj single W7
haploos adj single W7
ἀφομοιο̑ω vb to make like LRC
εἷς nbr/adj one LRC
heis nbr one W7
hen nbr.neut one W7
hendeka nbr eleven W7
keleuthos n.fem path W7
homalos adj even W7
homilein vb to consort with, address W7
ὁμιλέω vb to consort with, busy oneself with LRC
ὁμιλία n.fem being together LRC
homilia n.fem conversation, discourse, reunion W7
homilos n.masc crowd, assembly W7
ὅμοιος adj like, similar LRC
ὁμοίως adv similarly LRC
ὁμός adj same RPN
homos adj same W7
ὁμοῦ adv together LRC
οὐδαμοῦ adv nowhere LRC
οὐδαμῶς adv by no means LRC
σύν prep with LRC
syn prep (together) with W7
hyphen adv in a whole W7
Late Greek: anakolouthon adj inconsistency in logic W7
homilia n.fem homily W7
Medieval Greek: akolouthos adj that follows W7
Classical Armenian: amenayn adj all, every LRC
amenayn n everyone LRC
hez adj meek LRC
mi adj one LRC
Old Persian: hama- adj same, equal RPN
Avestan: hāma- adj like RPN
Sanskrit: saṁsāra n lit. flowing/passing through W7
samá-ḥ adj same, equal RPN
sám adv together LRC
sāṁkhya n Samkhya: salvation by knowing matter vs. soul distinction W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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