Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. sem-   'summer'

Semantic Field(s): Summer


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: sam n sun, summer RPN
samrad(h) n summer CDC/RPN
Old Welsh: ham n summer RPN
Welsh: haf n summer RPN
Old English: sumer, sumor, sumur n.masc summer LRC
Middle English: somer, sumer n summer CDC
English: summer n season between spring and fall AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: somer, sumur n summer CDC/RPN
Middle Dutch: somer n summer CDC
Dutch: zomer n summer CDC
Old Saxon: sumar n summer ASD
Middle Low German: somer n summer CDC
Low German: sommer n summer CDC
Old High German: sumar n summer RPN
Middle High German: sumer n summer CDC
German: Sommer n.masc summer RPN
North Germanic  
Old Norse: sumer n.masc summer ASD/W7
Old Icelandic: sumar n.neut summer ASD/RPN
Danish: sommer n summer CDC
Swedish: sommar n summer CDC
Classical Armenian: am n year LRC
Armenian: amarn n summer CDC
Avestan: hama n summer CDC
Sanskrit: sámā n year, season, summer RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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