Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: seng-   'to sink, sag, fall'

Semantic Field(s): to Sink, to Fall


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sincan, sanc, suncon, suncen vb.str to sink ASD/W7
Middle English: saggen vb to sag W7
sinken, synken vb to sink CDC
English: sag vb to droop/sink/settle (as if) from pressure/loss of tautness AHD/W7
sink, sank, sunk vb.str to submerge, become submerged, go to bottom AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: zakken vb to sag, sink (as dregs) CDC
zinken vb to sink CDC
Old Saxon: sinkan vb to sink ASD
Middle Low German: sakken vb to sag CDC
sinken vb to sink CDC
Old High German: sinkan, sinchan vb to sink ASD/W7
Middle High German: sinken vb to sink CDC
German: sacken vb to sag LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: sökkva vb to sink ASD
Danish: sakke vb to sag, sink astern CDC
synke vb to sink CDC
Swedish: sacka vb to sag W7
sjunka vb to sink CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: sig(g)kwan vb to sink ASD/CDC
Armenian: ankanim vb to fall HH/W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
HH=Heinrich Hübschmann: Armenische Grammatik (1897)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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