Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: sengh-   'to sing'

Semantic Field(s): to Sing


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Welsh: de(h)ongli vb to explain LRC
Old English: sang, song n.masc song, poetry ASD
singan, sang, sungon, sungen vb.str.III to sing, recite, compose LRC
Middle English: singen vb to sing W7
song n song W7
English: Meistersinger prop.n master of 14th-16th century German guild cultivating traditions of medieval Minnesingers W7
minnesinger n German lyric poet/musician of 12th-14th centuries AHD/W7
sing, sang, sung vb.str to produce music via voice AHD/W7
singspiel n comic/dramatic German musical/dialogue work AHD/W7
song n act/art of singing AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: singa vb to sing ASD
song n song ASD
Dutch: zingen vb to sing LRC
Old Saxon: sang n song ASD
singan vb to sing LRC
Old High German: sang n song ASD
singan vb to sing, recite W7
Middle High German: meistersinger n.masc Meistersinger, lit. master-singer W7
minnesinger n.masc minnesinger, courtly love singer W7
singer n.masc singer W7
German: Meistersinger n.masc Meistersinger W7
Minnesinger n.masc minnesinger W7
singen vb to sing W7
singspiel n.neut singspiel W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: syngja, syngva vb to sing LRC
Icelandic: syngva vb to sing, ring, whistle ASD
söngr n song ASD
Danish: synge vb to sing LRC
Swedish: sjunga vb to sing LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: saggws n song ASD
siggwan vb.str.III to sing GED
Crimean Gothic: singhen vb to sing CGo
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: ζίγγος n humming of bees LRC
Homeric Greek: ὀμφή n.fem voice of a god/goddess LRC
Prakrit: saṃghai vb to say, teach LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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