Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: seni-, senu-, seni-, sn̥-ter-   'for oneself; sundry, separate'

Semantic Field(s): Alone, Only, to Separate


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gesundrian vb.wk to sunder ASD/W7
onsundran adv asunder CDC
syndrian vb to sunder W7
syndrig adj sundry W7
Middle English: asunder, asundyr adv asunder MEV
asundir, osunder, onsuder adv asunder CDC
sans prep sans W7
saun prep sans W7
sunderen vb to sunder W7
sundry adj sundry W7
English: asunder adj/adv apart, into parts LRC
sans prep without AHD/W7
sinecure n ecclesiastical benefice without cure of souls AHD/CDC
sinsemilla n potent marijuana from unpollinated female plants AHD
sunder vb.trans to sever, divide, separate, break apart AHD/W7
sundry adj separate, several, various, miscellaneous AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: zonder prep without TLL
Old High German: sunderig, suntarīg adj sundry ASD/W7
suntarōn vb to sunder W7
German: sondern conj but, on the contrary TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: sundr adv asunder LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: sundrō adv asunder, alone LRC
Latin: sine prep sans IEW
Portuguese: sem prep sans TLL
Spanish: sin prep sans TLL
Middle French: san(s) adv/prep sans W7
French: sans adv/prep sans W7
Sanskrit: sanu-tár adv aside IEW


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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