Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: sen(o)-   'old, senile, senior'

Semantic Field(s): Old


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: sen adj old RPN
Middle English: seignour n seignior W7
senat n senate W7
senior adj/n senior W7
signorie n signory W7
sir n sire W7
sire n sire, lord, prince, king W7
sirly adj lordly, imperious W7
English: seignior n man of rank/authority, feudal lord of manor AHD/W7
seign(i)ory n lordship, dominion, power/authority of feudal lord W7
senate n council/assembly with legislative/deliberative functions AHD/W7
senectitude n final stage of normal life span AHD/W7
senescent adj aging, growing old AHD
senile adj re: old age AHD/W7
senior adj of prior birth/enrollment/establishment AHD/W7
senior n person older than another AHD/W7
senopia n near-vision improvement due to old-age cataract AHD
señor n Spanish(-speaking) man AHD/W7
signory n seigniory AHD/W7
sir n man of rank/position AHD/W7
sire n father AHD/W7
surly adj arrogant, imperious AHD/W7
Scots English: shanachie n skilled teller of (Gaelic) tales/legends AHD
West Germanic  
German: Senior n.masc senior LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: sineigs adj old RPN
Latin: senatus n.masc council of elders W7
senectus n.fem old age W7
senex, senis adj old, aged LRC
senex, senis n.masc graybeard, old man, aged person W7
senilis adj senile, of an old man W7
senior adj.comp older, more aged W7
Medieval Latin: senectitudo n.fem old age W7
senior adj.comp lord, superior W7
Spanish: señor n.masc gentleman W7
señora n.fem lady, woman LRC
Old French: sénat n.masc senate W7
sire n.masc sire, lord W7
Middle French: seigneur n.masc lord W7
seigneurie n.fem seigniory W7
French: monsieur n.masc mister, gentleman, lit. my sir AHD
American French: Monsieur prop.n.masc Mister, My Sir [title for gentleman] AHD
Italian: signora n.fem lady, woman LRC
signore n.masc man, gentleman AHD
Lithuanian: sẽnas adj old RPN
seniaĩ adv early, long ago LRC
sẽnis n.masc old man LRC
Greek: henos adj re: yesterday, year before, preceding period W7
Sanskrit: sána-ḥ adj old, ancient RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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