Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: sent-   'to send, go, choose direction; to sense'

Semantic Field(s): to Go, to Sense, Perceive; Sense


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: sēt n road, path W7
Old English: sendan, sende, sened vb.wk.I to send LRC
sīð n.masc road, voyage, journey LRC
Middle English: as(s)enten vb to assent W7/CDC
consenten vb to consent W7
dissenten vb to dissent W7
senden vb to send W7
senten vb to scent W7
sentence n sentence W7
English: assent vb.intrans to agree, concur AHD/W7
consent vb.intrans to accord in opinion/sentiment AHD/W7
dissent vb.intrans to withhold assent AHD/W7
godsend n needed thing, desirable event AHD/W7
presentiment n premonition, feeling that something will/is about to happen AHD/W7
resent vb.trans to feel/express/exhibit indignant displeasure at AHD/W7
scent vb to smell, sense with olfactory organs AHD/W7
send, sent vb.wk to cause to go AHD/W7
sense n import, signification, meaning intended/conveyed AHD/W7
sense vb.trans to perceive, be(come) aware of W7
sentence n opinion AHD/W7
sentient adj responsive to/conscious of sense impressions AHD/W7
sentiment n predilection, thought/judgment/attitude prompted by feeling AHD/W7
sentinel n sentry, one who guards/watches AHD/W7
widdershins adv counterclockwise, in wrong/contrary/left-handed direction AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: senda vb to send ASD
sinna vb to think, ponder RPN
Old Saxon: sendian vb to send ASD
sīð n.masc way, journey; time ASD
sīð-wōrig adj lit. travel-weary ASD
Middle Low German: weddersinnes adv widdershins W7
Old High German: sendan, sentan vb to send W7/ASD
sin n sense, mind RPN
sind n.masc way, path; place, office ASD
German: Gesandte n.masc envoy, minister, ambassador LRC
senden vb to send LRC
Sinn n.masc sense, mind, thought RPN
North Germanic  
Old Norse: senda, sendad vb to send LRC
sinn n.neut time, occasion LRC
Danish: sind(s) n time(s) ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: sandjan vb to send ASD
sinþ(s) n time, occasion ASD
Latin: adsentiō, adsentīre vb to assent CDC/ELD
assentiō, assentīre vb to assent W7
assentor, assentārī vb.dep to approve, give assent W7
cōnsentiō, cōnsentīre vb to agree, consent W7
dissentiō, dissentīre vb to disagree, dissent W7
praesentiō, praesentīre vb to feel/perceive beforehand W7
sēnsa, sēnsōrum ideas, perceptions LRC
sensus, sensūs n.masc sense, feeling, perception RPN
sentens, sententis vb.ptc thinking, believing W7
sententia, sententiae n.fem sentence: feeling, opinion, conversation LRC
sentiens, sentientis adj/vb.ptc feeling, sensing W7
sentio, sentire, sensi, sensum vb to feel, think, sense RPN
Medieval Latin: sentimentum n.neut sentiment, predilection W7
Old French: as(s)enter vb to assent W7/CDC
ressentir vb to feel, resent, be emotionally sensitive to W7
sentence n.fem sentence, decision of judge, punishment for crime W7
sentir vb to sense, feel W7
Middle French: pressentiment n.masc presentiment W7
pressentir vb to have a presentiment W7
sens n.masc sense, feeling, sensation, perception W7
sentinelle n.fem guard W7
sentir vb to sense, feel, smell W7
French: assentir vb to assent CDC
pressentiment n.masc presentiment, premonition W7
ressentir vb to be emotionally sensible W7
sentiment n.masc sentiment W7
Old Italian: sentina n.fem vigilance W7
sentinella n.fem guard W7
sentire vb to sense W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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