Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: seug-   'sad, sick, grievous, afflicted'

Semantic Field(s): Sad, Sick; Sickness, Grief, Sorrow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: seōc adj sick CDC
Middle English: se(e)ken, siiken, syken vb to sicken CDC
sic, syk, sik(e), se(o)k adj sick CDC
English: sick adj ill, having disease CDC
sicken vb to fall ill, become sick LRC
sickness n illness, malady W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: siak, s(i)ek adj sick CDC
Middle Dutch: siek adj sick CDC
Dutch: ziekte n sickness TLL
Old Saxon: seok, siak, siec, sioc, siok adj sick ASD/CDC
Old High German: sieh, sioh, siuh adj sick ASD/CDC
siuchan, siuhhan vb to sicken CDC
German: siech adj sick ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: sjūkr adj sick CDC
Danish: syg adj sick CDC
syge n sickness TLL
Swedish: sjuk adj sick CDC
sjuka n sickness TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: siukan vb.str to sicken CDC
siuks adj sick LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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