Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: sk̑āi-, sk̑əi- : sk̑ī-   'to shine/shimmer dully; shadow'

Semantic Field(s): to Shine, Glisten, Shade, Shadow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: Hāmtūn-scīr prop.n.fem Hampshire LRC
scim(e)rian vb to shimmer ASD/W7
scīnan, scān, scēan, scinon, scīnen vb.str to shine ASD/W7
scīr n.fem shire, office, district LRC
scīr-gerēfa n.masc sheriff, lit. shire-reeve ASD
Middle English: schimeren vb to shimmer W7
shinen vb to shine W7
shire n shire W7
shirreve n sheriff W7
stanselen vb to ornament with shining colors W7
English: gegenschein n faint light on celestial sphere opposite sun AHD/W7
moonshine n moonlight W7
sciaenoid adj re: fishes including drums/croakers AHD
scintilla n trace, iota, minute amount AHD
scintillate vb to spark, emit sparks AHD/W7
sciurid adj re: rodents including squirrels/related mammals AHD
sheriff n judicial official of shire/county W7
shimmer vb to glimmer, shine with fitful/tremulous light AHD/W7
shine, shone vb.str to emit light AHD/W7
Shire prop.n hobbit land in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
shire n county, administrative subdivision W7
Shire-moot prop.n Shire meeting in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Shirriff prop.n sheriff in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
skiagram n picture/photograph of shadows/outlines AHD
skiascope, sciascope n ophthalmoscopic mirror employed in shadow-test AHD/CDC
stencil n perforated material through which ink/paint is imprinted on surface AHD/W7
tinsel n thread/strip/sheet of metal with sparkling/glittering appearance AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: skīna vb to shine ASD
Dutch: schemeren vb to shimmer ASD
schijnen vb to shine LRC
Old Saxon: skīnan vb to shine ASD
Old High German: scīra n care, business, management W7
skīnan, scīnan vb to shine ASD/W7
German: Gegenschein n.masc gegenschein W7
Schein n.masc shine W7
scheinen vb to shine LRC
schimmern vb to shimmer ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: skína vb to shine, gleam LRC
Icelandic: skína vb to shine ASD
Danish: skinne vb to shine LRC
Swedish: skimma, skimra vb to shimmer ASD/TLL
skin(n)a vb to shine TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: skeinan vb to shine ASD
Latin: scintilla n.fem spark W7
scintillatus vb.ptc that sparkles W7
scintillo, scintillāre vb to sparkle W7
Vulgar Latin: stincilla n.fem spark W7
Middle French: estancele n.fem spark W7
estanceler vb to sparkle W7
estincelle n.fem spark, glitter W7
étincelle n.fem spark, glitter, spangle W7
Latvian: seja n.fem face LRC
Old Church Slavonic: sijati, sijajǫ, sijaješi vb to shine, make shine LRC
Greek: σκηνή n.fem tent LRC
skia n.fem shadow W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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