Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: (s)kamb-, and (s)kemb-   'to bend, curve, hump'

Semantic Field(s): to Bend


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: camm adj crooked W7
Middle English: changen vb to change W7
entrechaungen vb to interchange W7
exchaunge n exchange W7
English: cambium n thin formative layer between.xylem/phloem of vascular plants AHD/W7
change n difference, alteration, transformation, modification W7
change vb to modify, make different AHD/W7
exchange n trade, giving/taking one thing for another AHD/W7
exchange vb to swap, trade, barter, give and take W7
hump n bump, rounded protuberance AHD/W7
hump vb to hunch, assume bent/crooked posture W7
interchange vb to put each in place of another AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle Low German: hump n hump W7
Latin: cambio, cambiāre vb to exchange W7
incumbo, incumbere vb to lie down W7
Vulgar Latin: excambio, excambiāre vb to exchange W7
Medieval Latin: cambium n.neut exchange W7
New Latin: cambium n.neut part of vascular plant producing new cells W7
Spanish: cambio n.masc change, exchange TLL
Old French: changier vb to change, exchange W7
entrechangier vb to exchange, interchange W7
Middle French: eschange n.masc exchange W7
eschangier vb to exchange W7
French: change n change TLL
Greek: kymbē n.fem bowl W7
skambos adj crooked W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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