Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. (s)kel-, extended klā-, klō-   'to bend; crooked'

Semantic Field(s): to Bend, Crooked


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: cocatrice n cockatrice W7
English: Chaucer prop.n Geoffrey Chaucer: 14th century English poet LRC
cockatrice n 2-legged dragon with rooster's head LRC
colon n rhythmical speech unit: 2-6 feet AHD/W7
cylinder n round tube AHD/W7
inculcate vb to teach/impress by frequent repetition/admonition W7
isosceles adj having two equal legs/sides AHD
schiller n lustrous colored reflection in mineral grain AHD
scolex n (head of) tapeworm AHD/W7
scoliosis n lateral curvature of spine AHD/W7
triskelion n figure comprising 3 bent/curved branches radiating from center AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: kous n hose, stocking TLL
German: Schiller n.masc schiller, iridescence LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: skjálfa vb to shake, tremble LRC
Swedish: kalsonger panties SAO/TLL
Latin: calcar, calcāris n.neut spur, stimulus, incitement CLD/IEW
calceus n shoe IEW
calcō, calcāre vb to tread upon IEW
calx, calcis n.fem heel CLD/IEW
cōlon n colon: part of poem/verse AHD/W7
cylindrus n.masc roll, cylinder W7
inculcō, inculcāre vb to inculcate, mix/tread in, force upon LRC
New Latin: scolex, scolicis n.masc worm, scolex W7
scoliosis n.fem scoliosis, crookedness of body part W7
triskelion n.neut figure comprising 3 bent branches W7
Spanish: calcar vb to trace lines LRC
calcetín n sock LRC
Old French: cocatris n cockatrice LRC
Anglo-French: chauce n heel; hose, shoe, footwear LRC
chaucer n cobbler, shoemaker LRC
chaucer vb to put on shoes LRC
chaucher vb to tread, trample LRC
chauçure n shoe, footwear LRC
Middle French: cylindre n.masc roll, cylinder W7
French: chausser vb to put on shoes LRC
chaussure n shoe LRC
Italian: calciare vb to kick LRC
calciatore n soccer player LRC
calzatura n footwear LRC
Homeric Greek: κυλίνδω vb to roll LRC
σκέλος n.neut leg, upper thigh LRC
σκολιός adj crooked, perverse LRC
σκώληξ n.masc worm, scolex LRC
Greek: kylindros n.masc cylinder W7
κῶλον n.neut leg, limb; part, member; clause, colon LS
skoliōsis n.fem scoliosis, crookedness of body part W7
triskelēs adj three-legged W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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