Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. (s)ker-   'to bend, curve, turn'

Semantic Field(s): to Bend, to Turn


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: cruind adj round IED/W7
Welsh: crwn adj round RPN
Old English: crisp adj crisp W7
hrēac n.masc rick, heap ASD/IEW
hrin(c)g n.masc ring, circle, circuit ASD/W7
hrisian vb.wk to shake, tremble ASD/W7
hrung n.fem rung IEW
hrycg n ridge, back W7
scrincan vb to shrink W7
Middle English: ara(y)ngen, arengen vb to arrange CDC/W7
cerchen vb to search W7
cercle n circle W7
coroune n crown W7
corounen vb to crown W7
creste n crest W7
crisp adj crisp W7
crowne n crown W7
frouncen vb to curl W7
range n range W7
rangen vb to range W7
reek n rick W7
rigge n ridge W7
ring n ring W7
ruke n pile of combustible material W7
rung n rung W7
shrinken vb to shrink W7
English: arrange vb to dispose, put in proper order AHD/W7
circa prep approximately at/in/of AHD/W7
circadian adj re: circa 1-day periodicity AHD
circinate adj rounded, coiled AHD/W7
circle n ring, halo AHD/W7
circum- pfx around, about AHD/W7
circus n arena enclosed by banks of seats AHD/W7
cirque n circus AHD/W7
corona n projecting part of classic cornice AHD/W7
corvette n small, highly maneuverable warship W7
crepe n light crinkled woven fabric AHD/W7
crest n showy tuft/process on bird/animal head AHD/W7
cricoid adj re: cartilage of larynx with which arytenoid cartilages articulate AHD/W7
crisp adj wavy, curly AHD/W7
crispate adj crisp, curled, ruffled AHD
crissum, crissa n feathers/area under bird's tail AHD
crista n crest, ridge AHD
cristate adj re: crista AHD
crown n mark of honor, reward of victory AHD/W7
crown vb.trans to place crown/wreath upon head AHD/W7
curb n chain/strap on bit used to restrain horse AHD/W7
curvature n act of curving, state of being curved AHD
curve adj.arch curved: bent, turned, twisted AHD/W7
curve n bend, something curved W7
curve vb to turn/change/deviate from straight without sharp break/angularity AHD/W7
curvet n prancing leap of horse AHD/W7
derange vb.trans to disarrange AHD/W7
flounce n frounce AHD/W7
frounce n fabric strip attached by one edge AHD/W7
koruna n crown (Czech monetary unit) AHD/W7
krona n crown (Swedish/Icelandic monetary unit) AHD/W7
krone n crown (Danish/Austrian monetary unit) AHD/W7
kurtosis n flatness/peakedness of graphic representation of frequency distribution AHD/W7
ranch n land for raising horses/cattle/sheep AHD/W7
range n row, series of things in line AHD/W7
range vb to set in row/proper order AHD/W7
rank n row, series AHD/W7
recherche adj rare, choice, exotic, exquisite AHD/W7
rick n stack (e.g. hay) in open air IEW/W7
ridge n elevated body part (e.g. along backbone) AHD/W7
ring n circular band for holding/connecting AHD/W7
ringhals n spitting cobra AHD
Ringwraith prop.n a.k.a. Nazgûl in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
rink n smooth extent of ice AHD/W7
ruck n jumble, indistinguishable collection AHD/W7
rucksack n knapsack: supply bag strapped on back AHD/W7
rung n rail, spoke, cross-bar IEW/OED
search vb to seek carefully/thoroughly AHD/W7
shrink vb to cower, huddle, contract/curl up body AHD/W7
Scots English: rinc n area where contest is held W7
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: schrinken vb to draw back W7
Dutch: rug n ridge, back TLL
Old Saxon: hrisian vb to shake, tremble ASD
Old High German: hring n ring W7
hrukki n ridge, back W7
skank n frame; cupboard KDW
skrank n deceit KDW
German: Kehre n.fem turning, winding, reversal LRC
kehren vb to curve, sweep LRC
Krone n.fem crown, coronet; Austrian monetary unit W7
Kurve n curve TLL
Ring n.masc ring ASD
Rücken n.masc ridge, back LRC
Schrank n cupboard TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hraukr n rick W7
hríð n.fem while, time; storm, attack LRC
hrúga n.fem heap LRC
hrøkkva vb to fall back LRC
Icelandic: hringr n ring, circle ASD
hrista vb to shake ASD
krōna n crown (Icelandic monetary unit) IEO/W7
Danish: krone n crown (Danish monetary unit) W7
ryg n ridge, back TLL
Swedish: krona n crown (Swedish monetary unit) SEO/W7
kurva n curve TLL
rygg n ridge, back TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: hrisian vb to shake, tremble ASD
Crimean Gothic: rinck, ringo n ring CGo
Latin: circa adv around W7
circinatus vb.ptc surrounding W7
circino, circināre vb to round W7
circinus n.masc pair of compasses W7
circulus n.masc circle W7
circum adv/prep around LRC
circus n.masc circle, circus, round building W7
corona n.fem crown, wreath W7
corono, coronare vb to crown W7
crīsō, crīsāre vb to move haunches AHD/ELD
crīspō, crīspāre vb to swing, brandish AHD/ELD
crīspus adj crisp W7
crista n.fem tuft, comb, crista ELD/W7
crux, crucis n.fem cross W7
curvo, curvare vb to curve W7
curvus adj bent, arched, curved RPN
Late Latin: circo, circāre vb to go about W7
New Latin: cricoides n.masc cartilage in larynx W7
Old Spanish: ranchear vb to take up quarters W7
Spanish: cerca adv around TLL
rancho n.masc camp, hut W7
Mexican Spanish: rancho n.masc small ranch W7
Old French: arangier, arengier vb to arrange CDC/W7
cercle n.masc circle W7
circum- pfx around W7
corone n.fem crown W7
coroner vb to crown W7
desrengier vb to derange W7
renc, reng n.masc rank, line, place, row W7
renge n.fem range W7
rengier vb to place, set in row W7
Middle French: arangier vb to arrange W7
cerchier vb to go about, survey, search W7
courbe n.fem curve, curved piece of wood/iron W7
courber vb to curve W7
courbette n.fem curtsy W7
creste n.fem curved land W7
ranger vb to place, set in row W7
renc n.masc row, rank W7
French: arranger vb to arrange, put into rank CDC
cirque n.masc circus W7
crêpe n.fem crepe, pancake W7
déranger vb to derange, bother W7
recherché adj recherche W7
Italian: corvetta n.fem corvette CID/W7
Lithuanian: kraipaũ, kraipýti vb to turn about RPN
kreĩvas adj curved, crooked; wry RPN
krypstù, krỹpti vb to bow, bend RPN
Old Church Slavonic: krilo n.neut wing; pinnacle LRC
Russian: krivít’ vb to bend, distort RPN
krivój adj curved, crooked RPN
Homeric Greek: κίρκος n.masc hawk/falcon that circles LRC
κορώνη n.fem sea-crow, cormorant LS
κορωνίς adj bent, curved LRC
κρίκος n.masc ring, necklace, bracelet LRC
κυρτός adj curved, rounded LRC
Greek: kirkos n.masc ring W7
κορωνός adj curved, crooked RPN
krikoeidēs adj ring-shaped W7
kyrtos adj convex W7
kyrtōsis n.fem convexity W7
Avestan: skarəna- adj round RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
IEO=Arngrimur Sigurdsson: Íslenzk-Ensk Orðabók (1970)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
SEO=Norstedts Stora Svensk-Engelska Ordbok, 3rd ed. (2000)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at