Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. (s)ker-, (s)kerə-, (s)krē-   'to cut, shear, score, scribe'

Semantic Field(s): to Cut


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: coirt n skin; bark RPN
crīathar n sieve GED
scaraim vb to separate GED
Welsh: cruitr n sieve GED
cwr n skin RPN
Old English: ā-scierian vb to cut off, separate GED
curt adj short W7
cyrtel, kyrtel n.masc kirtle W7/ASD
hærfest n.masc harvest; autumn W7
he(o)rþa n.masc pelt, deerskin GED
herþan testicles GED
hreþer, hræþer, hraþer n.masc breast, heart, stomach GED/ASD
hrīd(d)el n.neut coarse sieve GED
hrīd(d)er n.neut coarse sieve GED
scēar n.masc (plow)share W7/AHD
sceard n.neut shard, sherd W7
scearo n.fem portion, division; host, retinue GED
scearp adj sharp W7
scearu, scyru n.fem share, division; cutting, tonsure W7/AHD/ASD
sceoran, scear, scēaron, scoren vb.str to cut, score GED/ASD
sc(i)eran, scær, scǣron, scoren vb.str to cut, shear W7/ASD
scīnan vb to shine W7
scor n shore W7
scort adj short W7
scrapian vb to scrape W7
scrēad(e) n.fem shred, piece W7/ASD
scrēawa n.masc shrew W7
scrīfan vb.str to shrive, prescribe W7/ASD
scrūd n.neut shroud, garment W7
scrybb n.fem scrub, brushwood W7
scyrte n.fem skirt, short garment W7
Middle English: a(s)certainen vb to ascertain W7/CDC
ascriven vb to ascribe W7
carnal adj carnal W7
caroine n carrion W7
carpet n carpet W7
certain adj certain W7
charnel n charnel W7
concernen vb to concern W7
corier n currier W7
crime n crime W7
criminal n criminal W7
crone n crone W7
curas n cuirass W7
decree n decree W7
discernen vb to discern W7
excoriaten vb to excoriate W7
garbelen vb to garble W7
hervest n harvest W7
incarnat adj incarnate W7
inscrutable adj inscrutable W7
kirtel n kirtle W7
prescriben vb to prescribe W7
scars adj scarce W7
scaubert n scabbard W7
schare n (plow)share W7
schere adj freed from guilt W7
schrobbe n shrub W7
scor n score W7
scrap n scrap W7
scrapen vb to scrape W7
screde n fragment W7
screne n screen W7
screw n screw W7
scribe n scribe W7
scriblen vb to scribble W7
scrowe, scrowle n scroll W7
scurf n scurf W7
secret adj/n secret W7
secretarie n secretary W7
shard n shard W7
share n part, portion; share: plowshare W7
sharp adj sharp W7
sheren vb to shear W7
shirte n shirt W7
shore n shore W7
short adj short W7
shrede n shred W7
shrewe n shrew; evil/scolding person W7
shriven vb to shrive W7
shroud n shroud W7
skarmish n skirmish W7
skere adj sheer W7
skirt n skirt W7
skyrmissh n skirmish W7
subscriben vb to subscribe W7
ypocrisie n hypocrisy W7
English: apocrine adj producing secretion via separation of cytoplasm AHD/W7
ascertain vb.trans to make certain/exact/precise AHD/W7
ascribe vb.trans to attribute, refer to supposed cause/source/author AHD/W7
bias n line diagonal to fabric grain AHD/W7
carnage n flesh of slain men/animals AHD/W7
carnal adj bodily, corporeal, re: flesh AHD/W7
carnassial adj re: carnivore tooth, larger/longer than adjacent tooth, adapted for cutting AHD/W7
carnation n variable human flesh color AHD/W7
carnivorous adj subsisting/feeding on animal flesh AHD/W7
-carp n.sfx part of fruit AHD/W7
carpel n structure in seed plant comprising innermost whorl of flower AHD/W7
carpet n heavy woven/felted fabric used as floor covering AHD/W7
-carpous adj.sfx having fruit(s) AHD/W7
carrion n dead/putrefying flesh AHD/W7
caruncle n naked fleshy outgrowth (e.g. bird's wattle) AHD/W7
cenacle n (upper-floor) dining room AHD
certain adj fixed, settled AHD/W7
charcuterie n pork butchery AHD/CDC
charnel n cemetery AHD/W7
circumscribe vb.trans to draw line around AHD/W7
concern vb to be about, relate to AHD/W7
concert n agreement in plan/design AHD/W7
concert vb to plan together AHD/W7
conscript adj drafted, conscripted AHD/W7
coreopsis n composite herbs AHD/W7
coriaceous adj resembling leather AHD/W7
corium n dermis AHD/W7
corm n underground stem acting as vegetable reproductive structure AHD/W7
cortex n plant bark/rind used medicinally AHD/W7
cribriform adj pierced with small holes AHD/W7
crime n commission of forbidden act, omission of mandated duty AHD/W7
criminal adj re: crime AHD/W7
crisis n turning point for better/worse in acute disease AHD/W7
criterion n standard on which judgment/decision may be based AHD/W7
critic n one who expresses opinion on matter involving judgment/interpretation AHD/W7
critic n criticism AHD/W7
crone n withered old woman AHD/W7
cuirass n piece of armor covering body, neck to girdle AHD/W7
currier n one who curries AHD/W7
curt adj terse, sparing of words AHD/W7
curtal adj having docked tail AHD/W7
decorticate vb.trans to peel off outer covering AHD/W7
decree n order usu. having force of law AHD/W7
describe vb.trans to represent/give account of, in words AHD/W7
diacritic n modifying mark near/through letter(s) AHD/W7
discern vb to detect by eye AHD/W7
disconcert vb.trans to throw into confusion AHD/W7
discriminate vb to mark/perceive peculiar/distinguishing features AHD/W7
eccrine adj producing fluid secretion without removal of cytoplasm AHD/W7
endocrine adj re: secreting internally AHD/W7
epicritic adj re: detailed cutaneous sensory reception AHD/W7
escarpment n steep slope, long cliff W7
excerpt vb.trans to extract, select for quoting AHD/W7
excoriate vb.trans to abrade, wear off skin AHD/W7
excrement n waste matter discharged from body AHD/W7
excrete vb.trans to separate/eliminate waste from body AHD/W7
exocrine adj re: secreting externally AHD/W7
festschrift n writings by different authors collected as tribute/memorial to scholar AHD/W7
garble vb to cull/sift (impurities) AHD/W7
harvest n season for gathering agricultural crops AHD/W7
Harvestmath prop.n Bree calendar's September in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hematocrit n instrument for determining relative amounts of plasma/corpuscles in blood AHD/W7
hypocrisy n feigning to be/believe what one is/does not AHD/W7
incarnate adj invested with bodily form/nature AHD/W7
incertitude n uncertainty AHD/W7
inscribe vb.trans to write/print/engrave as lasting record AHD/W7
inscrutable adj enigmatic, not readily understood AHD/W7
kirtle n medieval man's tunic AHD/W7
longshore adj re: seacoast location AHD
manuscript adj/n (re:) handwritten document AHD/W7
postscript n note(s) appended to completed letter/article/book AHD/W7
prescribe vb to claim title by right of use/enjoyment for fixed period AHD/W7
proscribe vb.trans to publish name of one condemned to death with property forfeited to state AHD/W7
recrement n dross, scoria, waste matter AHD
recriminate vb.intrans to make retaliatory charge against accuser AHD/W7
rescript n written answer of Roman emperor/pope to legal inquiry/petition AHD/W7
riddle n coarse sieve GED
scabbard n sheath for sword/dagger/bayonet AHD/W7
scar n isolated/protruding rock AHD/W7
scaramouch n stock character in Italian commedia dell'arte AHD/W7
scarce adj deficient in number/quantity compared to demand AHD/W7
scarf n broad cloth band worn over head/around neck/about shoulders AHD/W7
scarp n steep slope, line of cliffs AHD/W7
Scary prop.n village near quarry in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
score n (group of) twenty AHD/W7
score vb to record, tally via notches W7
scrabble vb to scribble, scrawl AHD/W7
scrap n fragments of discarded/leftover food AHD/W7
scrape vb to remove matter from surface AHD/W7
screed n tear, rent AHD/W7
screen n device used as protection from heat/drafts AHD/W7
screen vb to guard/shelter from danger/injury W7
screw n fastener: cylindrical/conical shank with projecting helical rib AHD/W7
scribble vb to write hastily/carelessly, not necessarily legibly AHD/W7
scribe n one of learned class serving as copyist/editor AHD/W7
scribe vb to mark by cutting/scratching W7
scrimmage n skirmish, minor battle AHD/W7
script n text, something written AHD/W7
scriptorium n medieval monastery room for scribes AHD/W7
scripture n holy writings TLL
scrobiculate adj having shallow grooves/pits AHD/W7
scrod n young fish (e.g. cod/haddock) AHD/W7
scrofula n tuberculosis in lymph glands AHD/W7
scroll n roll of leather/parchment/papyrus for document writing AHD/W7
scrotum n external pouch containing testes (in most mammals) AHD/W7
scrub vb to scour, clean with hard rubbing AHD/W7
scrutiny n examination, searching study/inquiry/inspection AHD/W7
scurf n thin dry detached epidermal scales AHD/W7
seashore n land bordering sea LRC
secern vb to separate AHD/W7
secret adj hidden, kept from view/knowledge AHD/W7
secretary n confidant: one entrusted with secrets/confidences of superior AHD/W7
serif n short lines stemming from/at angle to upper/lower ends of letter strokes AHD/W7
shard n piece/fragment of brittle substance AHD/W7
share n part, portion AHD/W7
share n plowshare AHD/W7
sharp adj adapted for cutting/piercing AHD/W7
shear vb to cut off (e.g. hair) AHD/W7
shears heavy scissors, cutting implement W7
sheer adj bright, shining AHD/W7
shirt n garment for upper part of body AHD/W7
shore n land bordering large body of water AHD/W7
shorn vb.past.ptc sheared LRC
short adj having little length AHD/W7
shred n scrap, particle, long narrow strip cut/torn off AHD/W7
shrew n small nocturnal mammal related to moles AHD/W7
shrewd adj mischievous AHD/W7
shrewmouse n shrew W7
shrive vb to minister sacrament of penance AHD/W7
shroud n cerement, winding-sheet, burial garment AHD/W7
shrub n low multi-stemmed woody plant AHD/W7
skerry n reef, rocky isle AHD/W7
skirmish n minor fight in war, incidental to larger events AHD/W7
skirt n free-hanging part of under/outer-garment from waist down AHD/W7
subscribe vb to sign, write (one's name) underneath AHD/W7
superscribe vb.trans to write/engrave on top/outside AHD/W7
transcribe vb.trans to make written copy of AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: rēne adj pure GED
scrīva vb to shrive, impose punishment ASD
sker n portion; host, retinue GED
skera vb to cut, shear ASD
skere, schere n share: plowshare ASD
skerp adj sharp ASD
Old Dutch: schroode n shred, piece ASD
Middle Dutch: scherm n screen W7
schreef n serif W7
schriven vb to write W7
schrubben vb to scrub W7
Dutch: kiel n.masc kirtle ASD
schors n bark TLL
schrabbelen vb to scratch W7
schreef n line, stroke W7
schrood n shred W7
Old Saxon: hrēni adj pure GED
hrēn-korni n.neut wheat GED
hrēnōn vb to purify GED
hrīdra n coarse sieve GED
hrīdrōn vb to sift GED
skarp adj sharp ASD
skerian vb to separate, distribute GED
unhrēni adj impure GED
Middle Low German: scheren vb to shear GED
Old High German: herbist n.masc autumn ASD
herder n.str.masc bowels GED
hrein-herzi adj pure in heart GED
(h)reini adj pure GED
hrītarōn vb.wk to sift GED
kurz, scurz adj short W7/ASD
reinōn vb to purify GED
rīt(e)ra n.fem coarse sieve GED
scarf adj sharp ASD
scar(o) n share: plowshare W7/ASD
sceran vb.str to cut off GED
scorf n scurf W7
scrīban vb to write W7
scrōt n piece cut off W7
skara n.str.fem portion, host, retinue GED
skeran vb.str to shear GED
skerjan vb.wk to separate, distribute GED
skirm n screen W7
skirmen vb to defend W7
un(h)reini adj impure GED
un(h)reinī n.str.fem impurity GED
Middle High German: kit(t)el n.masc kirtle ASD
scharte n sherd ASD
schurz n skirt, short garment ASD
German: Festschrift n.fem festschrift W7
Herbst n.masc autumn ASD
Kittel n.masc kirtle ASD
rein adj pure, clean; fine-ground GED
reinigen vb to clean, purify LRC
Scharte n shard, sherd ASD
Schere n.fem shears, scissors LRC
scheren vb to shear LRC
Schirm n.masc screen, umbrella LRC
schirmen vb to screen, protect LRC
Schraffe n.fem serif LRC
Schrift n.fem writing W7
Schrot n shred, piece ASD
Schurz n apron ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hjǫrr n.masc sword LRC
sker n skerry W7
skera vb to shear, pierce, cut open W7
skor n score, notch, tally W7
skrap n scraps W7
skrapa vb to scrape W7
skrúð n.neut cloth, stuff; mailcoat LRC
skyrta n shirt, kirtle W7
skærr adj pure W7
Old Icelandic: hreðr n.str.neut penis GED
hrein-hjartaðr adj pure in heart GED
hreinn adj pure GED
hörund n complexion, human flesh RPN
skera vb to shear, cut off GED
skǫr n host GED
ūhreinn adj impure GED
Icelandic: haust n.neut autumn ASD
kyrtill n.masc kirtle ASD
skarpr adj sharp ASD
skera vb to cut ASD
skortr adj want ASD
skrjóðr n shred, strip ASD
skrúð n tackle, ship shrouds ASD
skurfa n scurf W7
skyrta n shirt, kind of kirtle ASD
Norwegian: skrubbebær n dwarf cornel W7
Danish: kjole n dress TLL
kjortel n.masc/fem kirtle ASD
skjorte n shirt TLL
Swedish: kjol n skirt SAO/TLL
kjortel n.masc kirtle ASD
skarp adj sharp TLL
skjorta n shirt TLL
skrubba vb to scrub W7/SEO
skär adj pure, clean; pink, peach-colored LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: hairþra heart, bowels GED
hrains adj clean GED
*us-skarjan vb.wk.I to tear out GED
Umbrian: karu n portion GED
Latin: ascribo, ascribere vb to write, add W7
carnivorus adj carnivorous W7
carō, carnis n.fem meat, flesh LRC
carpo, carpere vb to pluck, gather W7
caruncula n.fem little piece of flesh W7
cernō, cernere, crēvī, certum vb to see, discern; sift, decide, separate LRC
certo, certare vb to strive W7
certus, certa, certum adj/past.ptc sure, certain, decided GED
circumscribo, circumscribere vb to write around W7
concerto, concertare vb to contend W7
conscribo, conscribere vb to enroll W7
conscriptus vb.ptc enrolled W7
coriarius n.masc tanner W7
corium n.neut skin, hide, leather RPN
cortex, corticis n.masc rind, hull, shell; bark, envelope GED
crībrum n.neut sieve GED
crimen n.neut accusation, crime W7
criminor, criminari vb.dep to accuse W7
criticus n.masc critic W7
curtus adj shortened W7
decerno, decernere vb to decide W7
decorticatus vb.ptc stripped off of the bark W7
decortico, decorticare vb to remove the bark from W7
decretum n.neut decree, decision W7
decretus vb.ptc decided W7
describo, describere vb to describe W7
discerno, discernere vb to separate, distinguish between W7
discrīmen, discrīminis n.neut difference, distinction W7
discriminatus vb.ptc chosen, distinguished W7
discrimino, discrimināre vb to sort W7
excerno, excernere vb to strain, sift out, discharge W7
excerpo, excerpere vb to gather, pluck out W7
excerptus vb.ptc gathered, plucked W7
excrementum n.neut dejection W7
excretus vb.ptc rejected W7
inscribo, inscribere vb to inscribe W7
postscribo, postscribere vb to write after W7
postscriptum n.neut something written after W7
postscriptus vb.ptc written after W7
praescribo, praescribere vb to order, dictate, write at the beginning W7
proscribo, proscribere vb to publish, proscribe W7
rescribo, rescribere vb to write in reply W7
rescriptum n.neut a letter in reply W7
rescriptus vb.ptc written in reply W7
scortea n leather bag/garment LRC
scorteus adj leather LRC
scortum n.neut skin, hide; whore, harlot GED
scriba n.masc scribe, official writer W7
scrībō, scribere, scrīpsī, scriptum vb to write LRC
scribo, scribere vb to write, draw W7
scriptum n.neut thing written W7
scriptus vb.ptc written W7
scrobiculus n.masc small ditch W7
scrobis n.masc ditch W7
scrofa n.fem breeding sow W7
scrōtum n.neut skin, scrotum GED
scrupus n.masc sharp stone W7
scruta trash W7
scrutinium n.neut act of scrutinizing, act of examining W7
scrutor, scrutāri vb.dep to search, examine W7
secerno, secernere vb to separate, distinguish W7
secretum n.neut secret W7
secretus vb.ptc separated W7
subscribo, subscribere vb to write beneath W7
superscribo, superscribere vb to write over W7
transcribo, transcribere vb to write across W7
Vulgar Latin: caronia n.fem dead animal W7
certanus adj certain, sure, assured W7
excarpsus vb.ptc plucked out W7
Late Latin: carnale adj.neut carnal W7
carnalis adj carnal W7
certitudo n.fem certitude W7
concerno, concernere vb to sift together, mingle W7
concerto, concertāre vb to plan together W7
coreacea adj.fem leathern W7
coreaceus adj leathern W7
coriaceus adj resembling leather W7
criminalis adj criminal W7
excoriatus vb.ptc excoriated W7
excorio, excoriāre vb to wear off the skin W7
hypocrisis n.fem hypocrisy W7
incarnatus vb.ptc flesh-colored, incarnated W7
incarno, incarnāre vb to incarnate W7
incertitudo n.fem incertitude W7
inscrutabilis adj not searcheable W7
scrofula, scrofulae n.fem tuberculosis of lymph glands W7
Medieval Latin: carnale adj.neut carnal W7
carnaticum n.neut tribute consisting of animals or meat W7
concerno, concernere vb to mingle W7
praescribo, praescribere vb to prescribe W7
recriminatus vb.ptc recriminated W7
recrimino, recriminare vb to recriminate W7
scribillo, scribillare vb to scribble W7
scriptorium n.neut medieval monastery room for scribes W7
scrofula n.fem scrofula W7
secretarius n.masc secretary W7
New Latin: carpellum n.neut carpel W7
-carpium sfx -carp; re: seizing/prehension W7
-carpus sfx -carpous; re: seizing/prehension W7
coreopsis n.fem bedbug W7
cormus n.masc tree trunk W7
postscriptum n.neut postscript, note at end of letter W7
Spanish: escritura n scripture TLL
escuerzo n frog, toad LRC
Old French: acertainer, acerteiner vb.trans to ascertain CDC
ascrire vb.trans to ascribe CDC
certain adj sure, assured, certain W7
escorce n bark, peel LRC
ypocrisie n.fem hypocrisy W7
Old North French: carnal adj carnal W7
carogne n.fem dead and putrefying flesh, flesh unfit for food W7
escarpe n.fem sash, sling W7
escars vb.ptc plucked out W7
Anglo-French: caroine n.fem putrefacting flesh W7
escaubers n.masc sheath W7
Middle French: acertainer vb to ascertain W7
ascrivre vb to write W7
biais adv bias, crooked position W7
carnage n.masc massacre W7
carnation n.fem carnation W7
chaircuiterie n charcuterie, lit. pork-butcher's shop W9
chaircutier n pork butcher W9
charnel adj of the flesh W7
concerner vb to concern W7
concerter vb to concert W7
conscript n.masc written note appended to a document W7
corier n.masc currier W7
court adj short W7
courtault adj curtal, cut short W7
curasse n.fem cuirass W7
decré n.masc decision W7
desconcerter vb to disconcert W7
discerner vb to discern W7
escarmouche n.fem skirmish W7
escren n.masc screen W7
escroe n.fem nut, female screw W7
incertitude n.fem incertitude W7
secret n.masc secret W7
French: biais n bias, slant AHD
carnassier adj carnivorous W7
caruncule n.masc caruncle W7
charcuterie n charcuterie, lit. pork-butcher's shop W9
concert n.masc concert W7
écorce n bark, peel LRC
écriture n scripture TLL
Provençal: biais n bias, slant AHD
Old Italian: carnagione n.fem carnation W7
carne n.fem flesh W7
carpire vb to pluck W7
carpita n.fem carpet W7
concertare vb to plan together, to consult one another W7
garbellare vb to garble W7
Italian: ascrivere vb.trans to ascribe CDC
concertare vb to plan, settle W7
concèrto n.masc concert W7
scaramuccia n.fem skirmish W7
scarpa n.fem shoe W7
scorza n bark, peel LRC
Lithuanian: kar̃tas n.masc time LRC
kerpù, kir̃pti vb to cut (with scissors) RPN
kir̃sti, ker̃ta, kir̃to vb to cut LRC
skìrti vb to cut, separate GED
Latvian: kārts n.fem pole LRC
Old Church Slavonic: črěvo n belly GED
Russian: korá n crust; rind, bark RPN
Homeric Greek: καρπός n.masc fruit; wrist LRC
Greek: ἀποκρίνω vb to separate, answer LRC
diakrinein vb to distinguish W7
diakritikos adj separative W7
epikarsios adj slanted AHD
epikrinein vb to decide W7
epikritikos adj determinative W7
εὖνις adj bereaved GED
-karpion sfx to seize W7
κείρω vb to shear, clip, cut off GED
koris n.fem bedbug W7
kormos n.masc tree trunk W7
κρῑ́νω vb to cut; to judge, decide GED
κρίσις n decision GED
kritērion n.neut criterion W7
kritēs n.masc judge W7
kritikos adj able to discern W7
kritkē n.neut art of the critic W7
skariphasthai vb to scratch an outline, sketch W7
hypokrinesthai vb to answer, act on stage W7
hypokrisis n hypocrisy, playing role on stage W7
Hittite: kar-aš-zi to cut off RPN
Avestan: čarəman- n skin, hide RPN
kərəntaiti vb to cut, flay; to dress an animal RPN
Sanskrit: kartati vb to cut (off) RPN
kr̥ṇāti vb to harm, kill GED
kr̥tti- n pelt GED
kṛ́tti-ḥ n skin, hide RPN
kṛntáti vb to cut (off) RPN
cárman- n skin, hide, bark GED
pŕ̥śniṣ adj spotted GED
Tocharian B: kärst- vb to cut up, destroy RPN
Tocharian A: kärṣt- vb to cut up, destroy RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
SEO=Norstedts Stora Svensk-Engelska Ordbok, 3rd ed. (2000)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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