Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: slak-   'to hit, hammer'

Semantic Field(s): to Hit, Strike, Beat, Hammer (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: slacain I beat W7
Old English: ofslean, ofslōh, ofslōgon, ofslægen vb.str.VI to slay, destroy LRC
sle(a)ht, sli(e)ht, slīet, slyht n.masc stroke, striking, slaughter ASD/W7
slēan, slōg, slōgon, slagen vb.str to slay, smite, strike ASD/W7
slecg n.fem sledge W7
Middle English: slaughter n slaughter W7
slegge n sledge W7
sleight n sleight W7
slen vb to slay W7
sli adj sly W7
English: onslaught n fierce attack AHD/W7
schlock n shoddy/inferior item AHD
slag n cinder, dross/scoria of metal AHD/W7
slaughter n act of killing AHD/W7
slay, slew, slain vb.str to kill, put to death violently AHD/W7
sledge n sledgehammer AHD/W7
sledgehammer n large heavy two-handed hammer W7
sleight n deceitful craftiness AHD/W7
sly adj shrewd, canny AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: slā vb to slay, smite, strike ASD
slachte n (mortal) blow; stamp, coining ASD
Dutch: aanslag n onslaught W7
Old Saxon: man-slahta n.fem manslaughter ASD
slahan vb to slay, smite, strike ASD
Middle Low German: slagge n slag W7
Old High German: slaga n sledge, hammer, mallet ASD
slahan vb to slay, smite, strike W7
slahta n slaughter ASD
German: Anschlag n.masc onslaught, assault LRC
Schlag n.masc hit, blow LRC
schlagen vb to hit, strike, smite LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: slá vb to slay, smite, strike LRC
slātra vb to slaughter W7
sleggja n sledge W7
sloeght n sleight W7
sloegr adj sly W7
Old Icelandic: sláttr n.masc smiting, mowing; striking an instrument ICE
Icelandic: slá vb to slay, smite, strike ASD
sleggja n sledge ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: af-slahan vb to slay ASD
slahan vb to slay, smite, strike ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
VI=class 6
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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