Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: (s)leu-   'slack, feeble, loosely hanging'

Semantic Field(s): Weak, Infirm, to Drop


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: lott n whore GED
Old English: lieþre adj useless GED
*slīete n sleet, hail IEW
Middle English: slugge n slug W7
English: slear, sleer vb to smear, spread IEW
sleet n (partly) frozen rain IEW/W7
slete n sleet W7
slouch n lout, lazy/awkward/ungainly person W7
slouch vb to walk/act like slouch IEW/W7
slud n.dial sludge IEW
sludge n mud, mire, ooze W7
slug n sluggard IEW/W7
sluggard n habitually lazy/sluggish person W7
sluggish adj slow, torpid, indolent IEW/W7
slur n.obs silt, ooze, slime, thin mud IEW/W7
slur vb to slip, slide, smear IEW/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: sloddern vb to flap, shake GED
Middle High German: liederlich adj slight, scanty GED
slote(r)n vb to flap, shake GED
slūder n.fem sling, catapult GED
slūder-affe n.masc idler GED
slūdern vb.wk to throw, sling GED
German: liederlich adj lewd, immoral, slovenly LRC
Schleuder n.fem sling, catapult LRC
schleudern vb to fling, catapult; skid, slide LRC
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: sloðra vb.wk to drag oneself ahead GED
Norwegian: slugga vb to move slowly/sluggishly IEW
Danish: sludre vb to chatter GED
Swedish: slugga vb to move slowly/sluggishly IEW
East Germanic  
Gothic: *af-slauþjan vb.wk.I to be perplexed GED
*af-slauþnan vb.wk.IV to be amazed GED
Serbo-Croatian: lutati vb to saunter GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
IV=class 4
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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