Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. (s)ner-   'to turn, wind, etc.'

Semantic Field(s): to Turn, to Wind, Wrap


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ge-sneorcan vb to shrivel up GED
nearu adj narrow; full of hardship LRC
Middle English: narowe adj narrow W7
English: narrow adj slender, less than standard width W7
Nori prop.n dwarf in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
West Germanic  
Dutch: snor n moustache TLL
Old Saxon: naru adj narrow; oppressive ASD
Old High German: narwa n.wk.fem scar GED
narwo n.wk.masc scar GED
snar(a)ha n.fem loop GED
snerhan vb.wk to twist, wind GED
snuor n cord W7
German: Narbe n.fem scar LRC
Schnur n cord, string LRC
Schnurrbart n moustache TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: Nóri prop.n.masc Nori (Voluspa dwarf) TPE
nóri n.masc turner, winder LRC
Old Icelandic: snara vb.wk to turn GED
snorkinn vb.past.ptc shriveled GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
past=past (tense)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
TPE=Lee M. Hollander: The Poetic Edda (1962)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at