Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: sneubh-   'to woo, marry'

Semantic Field(s): to Wed, Marry


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: nimphe n nymph W7
English: connubial adj conjugal, re: (state of) marriage AHD/W7
nubile adj of marriageable age/condition AHD/W7
nuptial adj re: wedding, marriage (ceremony) AHD/W7
nuptials wedding, marriage W7
nymph n minor nature divinity represented as beautiful maiden AHD/W7
nympholepsy n frenzy/ecstasy thought to be induced by nymphs AHD
nympholept n one in state of nympholepsy AHD
West Germanic  
German: Nymphe n.fem nymph LRC
Latin: connūbium, cōnūbium n.neut wedding, marriage W7
cōnūbiālis adj connubial W7
nubilis adj nubile W7
nūbo, nūbere, nupsi, nuptum vb to wed, marry W7
nuptiae nuptials W7
nuptialis adj nuptial W7
nympha n.fem nymph, bride W7
Middle French: nimphe n.fem nymph W7
French: nubile adj nubile W7
Homeric Greek: Νύμφη prop.n.fem Nymph, e.g. a Naiad (water nymph) LRC
νύμφη n.fem nymph, bride, lady LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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