Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: (s)pī̆ko-   'woodpecker (or other large bird)'

Semantic Field(s): Bird


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: pīc n.masc pike, point, pick(ax) ASD/W7
Middle English: pie n pie W7
pike n pike, pickax, pikestaff W7
English: magpie n bird (genus Pica) related to jays W7
pica n 12-point type AHD/W7
picaro n rogue, bohemian AHD/W7
picket n pointed/sharpened stake/post/pale AHD/W7
pie n magpie AHD/W7
pike n pikestaff AHD/W7
pikestaff n spiked staff W7
pique n durable ribbed clothing fabric AHD/W7
pique vb.trans to irritate, arouse anger/resentment in AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: speh n pie W7
German: Specht n.masc woodpecker LRC
Latin: pica n.fem magpie W7
picus n.masc woodpecker W7
Medieval Latin: pica n.fem collection of church rules W7
Spanish: pícaro n.masc character in picaresque novels W7
Old French: pie n.fem magpie W7
Middle French: piquer vb to prick, sting W7
piquet n.masc prick W7
French: piqué vb.ptc pricked W7
piquer vb to prick, quilt W7
piquet n.masc stick, rod W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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