Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: (s)pingo-   'finch, sparrow'

Semantic Field(s): Bird


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Welsh: pinc n.masc finch ASD
Old English: ceaffinc n.masc chaffinch W7
finc n.masc finch W7
Middle English: chaffinch n chaffinch W7
finch n finch W7
English: chaffinch n European finch AHD/W7
distelfink n traditional folk-art finch motif AHD
finch n songbird with short stout conical bill AHD/W7
hawfinch n Eurasian finch with white/brown/black feathers AHD
pinch n.dial finch IEW
(s)pink n.dial finch IEW
West Germanic  
Dutch: vink n.masc finch ASD
Pennsylvania German: distelfink n distelfink AHD
Low German: fink(e) n.masc finch ASD
Old High German: finc(h)o n.masc finch ASD/W7
Middle High German: vinke n.masc finch ASD
German: Fink(e) n.masc finch ASD
North Germanic  
Danish: finke n.masc/fem finch ASD
Swedish: fink n.masc finch ASD
Greek: spiza n.fem chaffinch W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches W├Ârterbuch (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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