Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: (s)p(h)i̯ēu- : (s)pi̯ū-, (s)pīu̯-   'to spit, spew, sputter'

Semantic Field(s): to Spit


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: spǣtl, spātl n.neut spittle W7
spittan, spyttan vb.wk to spit W7/ASD
spīwan vb.str to spew W7/ASD
Middle English: spetil n spittle W7
spewen vb to spew W7
spitten vb to spit W7
spouten vb to spout W7
English: cuspidor n spittoon AHD/W7
hemoptysis n expectoration of blood from respiratory tract AHD/W7
ptyalin n amylase found in saliva AHD/W7
spew vb to vomit AHD/W7
spit, spat vb.str to expectorate, eject (saliva) from mouth AHD/W7
spit n spittle W7
spittle n saliva AHD/W7
spittoon n receptacle for spit W7
spout vb to eject (liquid) in a stream AHD/W7
sputter vb to splutter, spit/squirt noisily from mouth AHD/W7
sputum n expectorated matter (incl. saliva etc.) AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: spī(g)a vb to spew ASD
Middle Dutch: spoiten vb to spout W7
Dutch: sputteren vb to sputter W7
Old Saxon: spīwan vb to spew ASD
Old High German: spīwan vb to spit, spew W7
German: speutzen, spützen vb to spit ASD
Spucke n.fem spit LRC
spucken vb to spit LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: spýja vb to spew ASD
spýta vb to spit ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: speiwan vb to spit ASD
Latin: conspuo, conspuere vb to spit on W7
spuo, spuere vb to spit W7
sputum n.neut spit, spittle W7
sputus vb.ptc spit W7
New Latin: hemoptysis n.fem expectoration of blood W7
Portuguese: cuspidouro n.masc cuspidor W7
cuspir vb to spit W7
Homeric Greek: πτύω vb to spit LRC
Greek: ptyalon n.neut saliva W7
ptysis n.fem act of spitting W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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