Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: stāi-, stī̆-, sti̯-ā-   'to condense, press together; stiff; stone'

Semantic Field(s): to Gather, Collect, to Press, Rock, Stone


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: Æðelstān prop.n Athelstan, lit. noble-stone LRC
bryn-stān n.masc brimstone MEV
eorc(n)an-stān, eorcen-stān n.str.masc jewel, precious stone, lit. silver-stone ASD
stān n.masc stone W7
stān-boga n.masc arch, bridge, lit. stone-bow ASD
stān-clif n.neut stony cliff LRC
stig, stī n.neut sty, enclosure; hall, part of house IEW/W7
stī(g)-weard n.masc steward, lit. hall-ward W7
Middle English: brinston, brynstane n brimstone MEV/W7
steward n steward W7
ston(e) n stone W7
sty n sty W7
English: Arkenstone prop.n Thorin's precious stone in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
Athelstan prop.n king of England (AD 924/925 - 939) LRC
brimstone n sulfur AHD/W7
Elfstan prop.n hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Elfstone prop.n a.k.a. Aragorn in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
steapsin n lipase in pancreatic juice AHD/W7
stearic adj re: stearin/tallow AHD/W7
stearin n ester of glycerol/stearic acid AHD/W7
steatite n soapstone: massive talc AHD/W7
stein n earthenware beer mug AHD/W7
steward n one employed to manage domestic concerns AHD/W7
stone n concretion of earthy/mineral matter AHD/W7
Stonebows a.k.a. Brandywine Bridge in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Stonewain prop.n narrow valley in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
sty n enclosure for animals (esp. swine) W7
tungsten n hard heavy ductile polyvalent metal AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: stēn n stone ASD
Dutch: steen n stone TLL
Old Saxon: stēn n stone ASD
Old High German: stein n.masc stone W7
stīga n.fem sty; hall ASD
Middle High German: stīge, stīje n sty for small livestock IEW
German: Steige n.fem sty, hen-coop ASD
Stein n.masc stone W7
Steingut n.neut stoneware, pottery W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: Aðalsteinn prop.n Athelstan, lit. noble stone LRC
bautarsteinn n.masc memorial stone LRC
jarknasteinn n.masc precious stone LRC
steinn n.masc stone, rock LRC
stī n sty W7
Icelandic: steina-brú n (natural) stone bridge ASD
stein-bogi n stone arch ASD
steinn n stone ASD
stía n.fem sty, kennel ASD
stívarðr n steward ASD
svína-stí n pig-sty ASD
Danish: sten n stone TLL
stí n sty ASD
Swedish: sten n stone W7
stia n.fem sty ASD
tungsten n tungsten, lit. heavy stone W7
East Germanic  
Gothic: stáins n.str.masc stone LRC
Latin: steatitis n.fem precious stone W7
French: stéarine n.fem stearin R1/W7
stéarique adj stearic, re: stearine W7
Homeric Greek: στέαρ n.neut (hard) fat, tallow LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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