Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: stegh-, nasalized stengh-   'stick, stalk, stang, etc.'

Semantic Field(s): Branch


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: stacga, stagga n.masc stag W7
steng n stang KEW
stingan, stang, stungon, stungen vb.str to sting W7/ASD
Middle English: stagge n stag W7
stingen vb to sting W7
stong, stang(e) n stang W2I
English: stag n adult male red deer AHD/W7
stang n.dial rail, pole, beam W2I
sting, stung vb.str to prick painfully AHD/W7
Sting prop.n sword of Bilbo/Frodo in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
stochastic adj random AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: stang n stang W2I
stengel n stang, stalk TLL
Old High German: stengil, stingil n stang, stalk KDW
German: Stange n stang, rod LRC
Stengel, Stängel n stang, stalk TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: andarsteggi n drake W7
stinga vb to sting W7
stǫng n.fem stang, rod KNW
Icelandic: stinga vb to sting, stick, stab ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: us-stiggan vb to thrust out ASD
Homeric Greek: στάχυς n.masc ear of grain LRC
Greek: stochazesthai vb to aim at, guess at W7
stochastikos adj skillful in aiming W7
stochos n.masc aim, guess, target W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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