Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. (s)teg-   'stake, pole, beam'

Semantic Field(s): Beam


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: staca n.masc stake, pole GED
Middle English: at(t)achen vb to attach CDC/W7
stak n stack W7
stake n stake W7
stakeren vb to stacker W7
English: attach vb to take by writ/legal authority AHD/W7
attack vb to set upon forcefully AHD/W7
stack n large conical pile (e.g. hay stacked in field) AHD/W7
stacker vb to stagger AHD/W7
stagger vb to totter, reel side-to-side AHD/W7
stake n pointed piece of wood driven into ground AHD/W7
stockade n defensive line of firmly set stout posts AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: staka, stac(e) n.masc stake, pole ASD/GED
Middle Low German: stake n stake, rod GED
Old High German: spizzin n.dat young deer, stag in first head GED
stache n.dat young deer, stag in first head GED
stahhulla n.str.masc/neut point, spike GED
stehhen vb.wk to stake down, fasten GED
stehho n.masc stake, pole GED
German: Stecken n.masc stake, pole LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: staka vb to push W7
stakkr n stack W7
stakra vb.freq to push W7
Old Icelandic: staka vb.wk to stake down, fasten GED
st(j)aki n.masc stake, pole GED
East Germanic  
Gothic: *staks n.masc mark GED
Latin: tignum n.neut beam, timber GED
Portuguese: atacar vb to attack CDC
Spanish: atacar vb to attack CDC
Old French: atach(i)er vb to attach CDC
a(t)taquer vb to attack CDC
estache n stake AHD
estachier vb to attach W7
Middle French: attacher vb to attach, fasten W7
French: attacher vb to attach CDC
attaquer vb to attack CDC
estacade n.fem stockade W7
Old Occitan: attacar vb to attack CDC
Old Italian: estaccare vb to attach W7
Italian: attaccare vb to attack CDC
Lithuanian: stãgaras n long, dry stem GED
stegerỹs n long, dry stem GED
Latvian: stę̄ga, stę̄gs n long stick GED
stęga n penis GED
Old Church Slavonic: stežerъ n support GED/IEW
stogъ n haystack GED
Armenian: t'akn n club GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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