Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: steigh-   'to climb, ascend; stride, march'

Semantic Field(s): to Rise, to Walk


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gestīgan, gestāh, gestigon, gestigen vb.str.I to mount, ascend LRC
stǣger n.fem stair(case) W7
stīgan, stāh, stigon, stigen vb.str.I to rise, ascend LRC
stigel n.fem stile W7
stīgend n.masc sty W7
stigrāp n.masc stirrup W7
stihtan vb.wk to stickle, arrange W7/ASD
Middle English: steir n stair(case) W7
stighten vb to stickle, arrange W7
stightlen vb.freq stickle W7
stile n stile W7
stirop n stirrup W7
styan n sty W7
English: acrostic n composition where initial/final letters of lines form word/phrase/sequence AHD/W7
cadastre n official register of real estate value/quantity/ownership AHD/W7
distich n strophic unit: two lines AHD/W7
hemistich n poetic half-verse AHD/W7
pentastich n poem/stanza with five lines AHD
stair n flight/series of steps from level to level AHD/W7
stich n line of verse AHD
stichometry n division of prose into fixed-length lines AHD
stichomythia n dialogue of dispute/altercation in alternating lines AHD/W7
stickle vb.intrans to contend stubbornly on insufficient grounds AHD/W7
stickler n one who stickles, insists on exactness/completeness LRC
stile n (set of) steps for getting over fence/wall AHD/W7
stirrup n ring used as foot support while riding AHD/W7
stoichiometry n branch of chemical science AHD/W7
sty n inflamed sebaceous gland swelling at eyelid margin AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: stīga vb to go, ascend ASD
stīge n score, twenty pieces LRC
Dutch: steeg n lane TLL
stichten vb to arrange; instigate ASD
stijgen vb to go, ascend ASD
Old Saxon: gi-stīgan vb to mount, ascend, descend ASD
stīgan vb to go, ascend ASD
Old High German: stegareif n stirrup W7
stiften vb to arrange; instigate ASD
stīgan vb to rise W7
stiglia n stile ASD
German: Stegreif n stirrup ASD
Steig n.masc hill-climbing LRC
steigen vb to mount, ascend ASD
Stiege n.fem staircase; score, twenty pieces LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: stétta vb to found, establish ASD
stigreip n stirrup ASD
stíga vb to go, ascend ASD
Norwegian: sti, stig(je) n sty ASD
Danish: sti n path TLL
stige vb to go, ascend ASD
Swedish: stig n path TLL
stiga vb to go, ascend ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: ga-steigan vb to ascend, descend ASD
steigan vb to go, ascend ASD
Crimean Gothic: stega n score, twenty pieces CGo
Latin: distichon n.neut distich W7
hemistichium n.neut hemistich W7
Old French: acrostiche n acrostic AHD
Middle French: acrostiche n.masc acrostic W7
French: acrostiche n.masc acrostic AHD
cadastre n.masc cadastre W7
Old Italian: catastico n.masc cadastre W7
Italian: catastro n.masc cadastre W7
Lithuanian: staigà adv suddenly LRC
Homeric Greek: στείχω vb to go, move, march, climb LRC
Greek: akrostichis n.fem acrostic W7
distichon n.neut distich W7
distichos adj having two rows W7
hēmi-stichion n.neut hemistich W7
sticho-mythein vb to speak dialogue in alternate lines W7
sticho-mythia n.fem stichomythia W7
stichos n.masc stich, line, verse W7
stoicheion n element W7
Late Greek: katastichon n.neut notebook W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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