Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: (s)teig-   'to stick, prick; sharp'

Semantic Field(s): to Bore, Sharp


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sticca n.masc stick, peg W7
stice n.str.masc stitch, prick; point/moment in time GED
sticel adj steep GED
sticel n.masc stickle; point, tip, goad GED
stician vb.wk to stick, prick GED
tiger n tiger W7
Middle English: instinct n instinct W7
steke n steak W7
stiche n stitch W7
stik n stick W7
stikken vb to stick W7
stykylbak n stickleback W7
thistel n thistle W7
tigre n tiger W7
English: astigmatism n lens defect causing blurred/imperfect image AHD/W7
distinguish vb to perceive as separate/different AHD/W7
etiquette n behavior observed in polite social/official life AHD/W7
extinguish vb.trans to quench, cause to cease burning AHD/W7
instigate vb.trans to provoke, goad/urge forward AHD/W7
instinct n natural impulse/aptitude/capacity AHD/W7
snickersnee n knife resembling sword AHD
steak n meat sliced from fleshy beef carcass, usu. broiled AHD/W7
stich n var. of stitch GED/W7
stick, stuck vb.str to stab, pierce with pointed tool/weapon AHD/W7
stick n woody part/piece of tree/shrub AHD/W7
stickleback n fish with sharp spines GED/W7
stigma n brand, scar left by hot iron AHD/W7
stitch n sudden sharp pain, esp. in side AHD/W7
stoup n beaker GED
thistle n prickly composite plant AHD/W7
Thistlewool prop.n Bree surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
ticket n document serving as permit/license/certificate AHD/W7
tiger n large carnivorous Asiatic cat AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: steka vb.str to stick, stab, prick GED
steke n.str.masc point, moment; stab, prick ASD/GED
Middle Dutch: steken vb to stick W7
Old Saxon: stekan vb.str to stick, stab, pierce GED
stekul adj steep GED
Middle Low German: stekel n point, tip GED
stickel n point, tip GED
stōp n stoup GED
Old High German: distill n thistle W7
steccho n stick, peg ASD
stechal adj steep GED
stehhal n.str.masc stoup GED
stehhan vb.str to stick, stab, prick GED
stichil, stihhil n.str.masc point, tip ASD/GED
sticken vb.wk to prick GED
stih(h) n.str.masc point, moment; prick, stitch ASD/GED
stouf n.str.masc stoup GED
Middle High German: stecken vb to stick, remain fixed ASD
German: Distel n.fem thistle LRC
Stachel n.masc thorn, spike, prickle LRC
stechen vb to stick, prick, pierce LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: steik n steak W7
steikja vb to roast on stake W7
stik n stick, stake W7
Old Icelandic: staup n stoup GED
stikill n tip (esp. of drinking horn) GED
Icelandic: staup n.neut stoup, cup ASD
stika n.fem stick ASD
stikill n pointed end of horn ASD
Danish: stik n stab ASD
Swedish: stick n prick, stitch, stab ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: stikls n.masc stoup, chalice GED
stiks n.str.masc point, moment in time LRC
Latin: dīstinguō, dīstinguere, dīstinxī, dīstinctum vb to divide, distinguish LRC
extinguo, extinguere vb to extinguish W7
instigatus vb.ptc incited W7
īnstīgō, īnstīgāre vb to incite, instigate GED
instinctus adj impelled W7
instinguō, instinguere vb to incite W7
stigma, stigmatis n.fem mark, brand W7
stinguō, stinguere vb to extinguish, to put out W7
tigris n.masc/fem tiger W7
Old French: tigre n.masc tiger W7
Middle French: distinguer vb to separate, distinguish W7
estiquet n.masc attachment W7
estiquier vb to attach W7
French: étiquette n.fem etiquette, tag W7
Old Prussian: sticlo n glass GED
Lithuanian: stìklas n glass GED
Latvian: stikls n glass GED
Old Church Slavonic: stьklo n glass GED
Greek: στίγμα n.neut mark, tattoo LRC
στιγμή n.fem spot, point LRC
stizein vb to tattoo W7
τίγρις n.fem tiger LRC
Avestan: tig(h)ra- adj pointed GED
Sanskrit: tigmá- adj pointed GED
téjate vb to be sharp GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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