Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. stel-   'to put, place'

Semantic Field(s): to Put, Place, Set, Lay


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: apostol n.masc apostle W7
ge-steald n.str.neut dwelling GED
hæg(e)-steald, heh-steald n.str.neut youth, bachelor, servant ASD/GED
hagu-steald, hago-steald n.str.neut youth, bachelor, servant ASD/GED
stealc adj lofty W7
stealdan vb.str.VII to have, possess GED/IEW
steall n.masc stall, place, (standing) position ASD/IEW
stellan, stillan vb to set, place ASD/IEW
stole n.fem stole W7
Middle English: apostel, apostle n apostle MEV/W7
epistle n epistle W7
forstall n act of waylaying W7
stale adj stale W7
stalke n stalk W7
stall n stall W7
stallion n stallion W7
stille adj still W7
stilte n stilt W7
stole n stole W7
stout adj stout W7
English: apostle n one sent (on mission) AHD/W7
collocate vb to put in place TLL
couch n long cushioned seating TLL
diastole n rhythmically recurrent expansion AHD/W7
epistle n letter (in New Testament) AHD/W7
gestalt n integration of physical/biological/psychological phenomena AHD/W7
install vb.trans to put/set in place AHD/W7
installment n periodic part in which debt is paid AHD/W7
local adj re: (nearby) locale/position W7
locale n site, place, scene W7
locate vb to place, settle, establish site/limits W7
locavore n one who prefers locally grown food LRC
locus n locale, position LRC
pedestal n foot/support of late classic/neoclassic column AHD/W7
peristalsis n successive waves of hollow muscle contraction AHD/W7
stale adj tasteless/unpalatable from age AHD/W7
stalk n main stem of herbaceous plant AHD/W7
stall n compartment in barn/stable AHD/W7
stallion n uncastrated male horse AHD/W7
stele n central vascular portion of vascular plant axis AHD/W7
still adj quiet, motionless AHD/W7
stilt n pole with foot-rest/strap for elevating wearer above ground AHD/W7
stole n robe, long loose garment AHD/W7
stolid adj unemotional, hard to arouse/excite AHD/W7
stollen n rich yeast bread with citron/raisins/chopped nuts AHD
stolon n horizontal branch propagating from plant base AHD/W7
stout adj of strong character AHD/W7
stull n round timber for supporting sides/back of mine AHD/W7
stultify vb.trans to allege/prove to be of unsound mind AHD/W7
systaltic adj pulsing, marked by regular contraction/dilatation AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: stal(l) n.str.masc stall, barn, (standing) place ASD/GED
Middle Dutch: stel adj stale W7
Old Saxon: haga-stold, hagu-stald, haga-stald n youth, bachelor, servant ASD/GED
stellian vb to place IEW
Old High German: hagu-stalt, haga-stalt, haga-stolt n youth, bachelor, servant ASD/GED/IEW
Hagu-stolt prop.n Hagustolt GED
stal(l) n.str.masc stall, place; barn, stable, dwelling GED/IEW
stellen, stellan vb to place ASD/IEW
stelza n stilt W7
stilli adj still W7
stolz adj proud W7
Middle High German: stal(l) n.str.masc stall, place; barn, stable, dwelling IEW
German: Gestalt n.fem form, shape, figure, gestalt W7
Hagestolz n youth, bachelor, servant GED
Stall n.masc stall, sty, kennel, stable LRC
stellen vb to place LRC
Stelze n.fem stilt LRC
still adj still LRC
Stille n.fem stillness LRC
Stolle n.fem stollen, fruit loaf LRC
Stollen n.masc post, support W7
stolz adj proud LRC
Bavarian: Stollen n.masc stollen, fruit loaf AHD
North Germanic  
Runic: Hagu-stadaz prop.n Hagustadaz GED
Hagu-staldaz prop.n Hagustaldaz GED
Hagu-staldiz prop.n Hagustaldiz GED
Old Norse: stallr n.masc stall; perch (for hawk) LRC
Old Icelandic: hag-stœðr adj fair, favorable GED
hauk-staldr n.str.masc chieftain GED
(hug-)stœðr adj firm, steadfast, fixed in one's mind GED
stallr n stall, stand; crib, rack, frame IEW
stāl n.str.neut granary GED
Icelandic: stallr n stall; shelf ASD
stola n.fem stole ASD
Norwegian: hog-stall n.masc bachelor GED
Danish: stilk n stalk TLL
Swedish: hog-stall n.masc bachelor GED
stjälk n stalk TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: and-stald n.neut additional aid/supply GED
*and-staldan vb.str.VII to supply GED/IEW
ga-staldan vb to gain, acquire, possess IEW
Old Latin: stlocus n.masc locus IEW/W7
Latin: collocō, collocāre vb to collocate TLL
epistola, epistula n.fem letter W7
locō, locāre, locāvī, locātus vb to locate, arrange LRC
locus, loci n.masc locus W7
stola n.fem stole W7
stolidus adj dull, stupid W7
stolo n.masc branch, sucker W7
stultus adj foolish W7
Late Latin: apostolus n.masc apostle, messenger W7
stultifico, stultificāre vb to make foolish W7
Middle Latin: gastaldio, gastaldius n steward (of royal estates), governor (of district) GED
kastaldis n steward (of royal estates), governor (of district) GED
Medieval Latin: installo, installare vb to install W7
stallum n.neut stall W7
New Latin: peristalsis n.fem involuntary intestinal contractions W7
Portuguese: lugar n place TLL
Spanish: lugar n place TLL
Old French: apostle n.masc apostle, messenger W7
epistle n.fem epistle, letter W7
estal n place AHD
estaler vb to place, fix W7
Middle French: installer vb to install W7
piedestal n.masc pedestal W7
French: lieu n place TLL
Old Italian: piedestallo n.masc pedestal W7
Old Prussian: staldis n stall GED
Lithuanian: stal̃das n stall GED
Latvian: stal̃lis n stall GED
Homeric Greek: στέλλω vb to equip, arrange, put in order LRC
στήλη n.fem stone, pillar, monument LRC
Greek: ἀπο-στέλλω vb to send away LRC
apo-stolos n.masc apostle, messenger W7
δια-στέλλω vb to expand, give express orders LRC
dia-stolē n.fem dilatation W7
ἐπι-στέλλω vb to send to LRC
epi-stolē n message, letter W7
peri-staltikos adj peristaltic W7
περι-στέλλω vb to wrap around LRC
stellein vb to place, install, set up W7
stolē n.fem stole, equipment W7
στόλος n.masc army LRC
systaltos adj verbal W7
sy-stellein vb to contract W7
Armenian: stełn n branch HH/W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VII=class 7
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
HH=Heinrich Hübschmann: Armenische Grammatik (1897)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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