Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. (s)ter-, (s)terə- : (s)trē-   'stark, stiff, solid, rigid, etc.'

Semantic Field(s): Strong, Mighty, Powerful, Hard


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: starian vb.wk to stare ASD/W7
stearc adj stiff, rigid W7
steorfan vb to starve W7
steort n tail LRC
*stercan vb to starch, stiffen W7
storc n.masc stork W7
strīdan, strād, stridon, striden vb.str to stride, walk ASD/IEW
stride n.masc stride, pace ASD
strīman vb to strime; resist, oppose ASD
strīmendi adj striving, resisting IEW
strūtian vb to exert oneself W7
styrne adj stern W7
þrot-bolla n.masc throttle, gullet ASD/IEW
þrote n throttle IEW
þrotu n.fem throat ASD/IEW
Middle English: staren vb to stare W7
stark adj stark W7
sterchen vb to starch, stiffen W7
sterne adj stern W7
sterten vb to start W7
stertlen vb.freq to startle W7
sterven vb to starve W7
stork n stork W7
striden vb to stride W7
strompat, strumpet n strumpet OED
strouten vb to strut W7
struglen vb to struggle W7
throte n throat W7
throtlen vb to throttle W7
English: anastrophe n inversion of usual syntactic word order AHD/W7
apostrophe n mark (') used to indicate plural/possessive-case/letter-omission AHD/W7
boustrophedon adj re: writing alternate lines in alternate directions AHD/W7
catastrophe n final event of drama (esp. tragedy) AHD/W7
cholesterol n steroid alcohol in animal cells/body fluids AHD/W7
diastrophism n deformation of earth's crust AHD/W7
redstart n small European songbird with rust-red breast/tail AHD
starch vb.trans to stiffen (with starch) AHD/W7
stare vb to look fixedly AHD/W7
stark adj strong, robust AHD/W7
Starkhorn prop.n Rohan mountain in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
start vb to jump, move suddenly/violently AHD/W7
startle vb to move/jump suddenly (in alarm/surprise) AHD/W7
starve vb to perish from want of food AHD/W7
stere n unit of volume: 1 cu. meter AHD/W7
sterigma n stalk, support, slender projection AHD/CDC
stern adj austere, hard/severe in nature/manner AHD/W7
stork n large Old World wading bird AHD/W7
strabismus n inability to attain binocular vision AHD/W7
strabotomy n surgical incision of eye muscle/tendon AHD
strafe vb to rake with gunfire W7
strepto- pfx twisted AHD/W7
streptomycin n antibiotic for bacterial infections AHD
streptonigrin n highly toxic antibiotic for tumors AHD
stride, strode, stridden vb.str to stand astride, walk with long steps W7
stride n long step W7
Strider prop.n man a.k.a. Aragorn in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
strime vb.dial to stride IEW
strobilus n aggregation of sporophylls resembling cone AHD/W7
stroboscope n instrument for measuring speed/frequency of rotation/vibration AHD/W7
strop n strap, strip of leather/canvas AHD
strophe n turning movement of classical Greek chorus AHD/W7
strophoid n nodal plane cubic curve AHD/CDC
strophulus n red-gum: papular skin eruption AHD
struggle vb to strive, use strong/violent effort IEW/W7
strumpery n.obs whoredom, harlotry, prostitution OED
strumpet n whore, harlot, prostitute OED
strut vb to swell, become turgid AHD/W7
throat n part of neck in front of spinal column IEW/W7
thropple n throttle IEW
throttle n throat, windpipe, trachea IEW
throttle vb to choke, compress throat W7
torpedo n electric ray AHD/W7
torpid adj numb, dormant, without motion/feeling/power of exertion AHD/W7
torpor n state of mental/motor inactivity AHD/W7
Scots English: strunt vb.dial to strut, swagger IEW/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: sterk adj stiff, rigid, hard ASD
strīd n strife ASD
strīda vb.wk to contend ASD
Dutch: staart n tail TLL
struik n bush TLL
Old Saxon: stark adj hard, stiff, rigid ASD
strīd n strife, contest ASD
strīdian vb to dispute, contend ASD
Old High German: drozza n throat W7
starc, starah adj stark ASD/W7
starēn vb to stare W7
sterban vb to die W7
sterz n tail LRC
storah, storc n stork ASD/W7
strīt n strife, contest ASD
strītan vb.str to dispute, contend ASD
Middle High German: sterzen vb to stand stiffly, move quickly W7
German: stark adj strong LRC
starren vb to stare LRC
sterben vb to die LRC
Storch n.masc stork LRC
strafen vb to fine, punish, chastise TLL
Strauch n.masc bush, shrub LRC
Strumpf n.masc sock, stocking TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: starf n.neut work, trouble LRC
sterkr adj stark LRC
stertr n tail LRC
strúpi n throat LRC
Icelandic: stara vb to stare ASD
sterkr adj stark ASD
storkr n stork ASD
Danish: stork n stork TLL
straffe vb to punish TLL
strube n throat (internal) TLL
strømpe n stocking TLL
Swedish: stork n stork TLL
strumpa n stocking TLL
strupe n throat (internal) TLL
Latin: stirps n.fem trunk, root W7
strenuus adj strenuous W7
struma n.fem goiter W7
torpedo n.fem torpor, numbness W7
torpeo, torpēre vb to be stiff/numb W7
torpidus adj torpid W7
torpor n.masc slumber, stiffness W7
Late Latin: anastrophē n anastrophe AHD
apostrophus n.masc turning away W7
strobilus n.masc pine cone W7
New Latin: strabismus n.masc strabismus, condition of squinting W7
strepto- vb.ptc strepto- W7
strobilus n.masc twisted object, pine cone W7
Middle French: apostrophe n.fem apostrophe W7
French: apostrophe n apostrophe AHD
cholésterine n.fem solid cholesterol W7
stère n.masc stere R1/W7
Lithuanian: starinti vb to stiffen W7
Old Church Slavonic: straxъ n.masc terror LRC
Homeric Greek: ἀπο-στρέφω vb to turn/twist back/away LRC
στερεός adj hard, stiff, solid LRC
στρεπτός adj twisted, braided LRC
στρέφω vb to turn, twist LRC
στρωφάω vb to tarry, keep turning LRC
Greek: ἀνα-στρέφω vb to turn back LRC
ana-strophē n.fem turning back W7
apo-strophos adj turned away W7
bou-strophēdon adv turning like oxen (in plowing) W7
δια-στρέφω vb to distort LRC
dia-strophē n.fem twisting W7
κατα-στρέφω vb to overturn LRC
kata-strophē n.fem catastrophe, overturning W7
strabizein vb to squint W7
strabismos n.masc strabismus, condition of squinting W7
strabos adj squinting, squint-eyed W7
strobilos n.masc pine cone W7
strobos n.masc action of whirling W7
strophē n.fem act of turning W7
ὑπο-στρέφω vb to turn away LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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