Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. stē̆r-   'star'

Semantic Field(s): Star


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Breton: sterenn n star GED
Cornish: sterenn n star GED
Welsh: seren n star GED
Old English: ǣfen-steorra n.masc evening-star ASD
steorra n.masc star GED
Middle English: asterisk n asterisk AHD
astronomie n astronomy AHD
constellacioun n constellation W7
even(e)-sterre n evening-star OED
sterre n star W7
English: aster n leafy-stemmed composite herb AHD/W7
asteriated adj star-shaped AHD/W7
asterisk n '*' [used in writing as reference/omission mark] AHD/W7
asterism n constellation, small star group AHD/W7
asteroid n sub-planetary solar satellite AHD/W7
astral adj re: stars AHD/W7
astraphobia n fear of thunder/lightning AHD
astr(o)- pfx star, heavens AHD/W7
astrobleme n meteor/comet impact pit/crater AHD
astrogate vb to navigate in space W7
astronaut n one who works/travels in space AHD
astronomer n one who studies stars/planets/galaxies AHD
astronomy n science of celestial bodies AHD/W7
constellation n configuration of stars AHD/W7
disaster n unfavorable stellar/planetary aspect AHD/W7
evening-star n Venus seen at/after sunset W7
Evenstar prop.n Arwen's epithet in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
star n luminous natural body visible in sky AHD/W7
stellar adj astral, re: star(s) AHD/W7
stellate adj star-shaped, radiating from center AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: stēra n star GED
Dutch: ster n star TLL
Old Saxon: sterro n.masc star GED
Middle Low German: sterne n.masc star GED
Old High German: stern n.masc star GED
sterno n.masc star GED
sterro n.masc star GED
German: Stern n.masc star LRC
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: stjarna n.fem star GED
Icelandic: stjarna n.fem star ASD
Danish: stjerne n star TLL
Swedish: stjärna n star TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: *stairno n.fem star GED
Crimean Gothic: *stern, stein n star CGo/GED
Latin: aster n.masc star W7
astronomia, astronomiae n.fem astronomy LRC
astrum n.neut star W7
stēlla n.fem star GED
Late Latin: asteriscus n.masc little star W7
astralis adj re: stars W7
constellatio n.fem ensemble of stars W7
constellatus vb.ptc studded with stars W7
stellaris adj re: stars W7
Old French: astronomie n astronomy AHD
Middle French: constellation n.fem ensemble of stars W7
desastre n.masc disaster W7
disaster n.masc disaster W7
Old Italian: disastro n.masc disaster W7
Homeric Greek: ἀστερόεις adj starred, starry, star-like LRC
ἀστήρ n.masc star GED
ἄστρον n.neut star, constellation LRC
Greek: asterizein vb to arrange in constellations W7
ἀστέριος adj starry CDC
ἀστερίσκος n.masc.dim asterisk, little star CDC
ἀστερισμός n.masc asterism, marking with stars CDC/W7
ἀστεροειδής adj star-like CDC
astrapē n lightning AHD
astronomia n astronomy AHD
Hittite: haster- n star GED
Armenian: astł n star GED
Avestan: stārəm star GED
stārō stars GED
Sanskrit: tā́ras stars GED
stár- n star GED
stŕ̥bhiṣ stars GED
Tocharian B: ścirye stars GED
Tocharian A: śre-ñ stars GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
inst=instrumental (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
nom=nominative (case)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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