Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 5. ster-, sterə- : strē-, steru- : streu-   'to strew, scatter, spread out'

Semantic Field(s): to Strew, Spread Out


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Scots Gaelic: srath n.masc valley W7
Old Breton: strovis I have spread out RPN
Old English: strǣt n.fem street, road W7
strand n.neut strand ASD
strē(a)w, strēow, strēu n.neut straw, hay ASD/RPN
strēon n.neut gain, treasure, acquisition W7
strē(o)wian, strēawian vb.wk to strew, scatter ASD/RPN
Middle English: destroyen vb to destroy W7
instructen vb to instruct W7
instrument n instrument W7
prostrat adj prostrate W7
straien vb to stray W7
strand n strand W7
straw n straw W7
stray n stray W7
streen n strain W7
strete n street W7
strewen vb to strew W7
strowen vb to strew W7
structure n structure W7
English: bremsstrahlung n (form of) electromagnetic radiation AHD/W7
consternate vb to dismay, terrify, throw into confusion AHD/CDC
consternation n terror, astonishment, paralyzing dismay AHD/CDC
construct vb.trans to make/form by combining parts AHD/W7
destroy vb to ruin, demolish AHD/W7
estray vb.intrans to stray AHD/W7
industry n diligence in pursuit/employment AHD/W7
instruct vb.trans to teach, give knowledge to AHD/W7
instrument n means of achievement/performance AHD/W7
Langstrand prop.n Gondor coast in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
obstruct vb.trans to block/close up (via obstacle) AHD/W7
perestroika n mid-1980's restructuring of Soviet economy/bureaucracy AHD
prostrate adj stretched out (face on ground) AHD/W7
sternocleidomastoid n neck muscle that rotates head AHD
sternum n compound ventral bone/cartilage AHD/W7
strain n lineage, progeny, ancestry AHD/W7
strand n shore, beach, land bordering water body W7
strath n (low-lying grassland along) flat wide river valley AHD/W7
stratocracy n government based on army/military AHD/W7
stratus n cloud form wider/lower than cumulostratus/cirrostratus AHD/W7
straw n grain stalks after threshing AHD/W7
Strawheads Rohirrim a.k.a. Forgoil in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
stray n domestic animal lost/wandering at large AHD/W7
stray vb.intrans to roam, wander from company/restraint/proper limits AHD/W7
street n wider thoroughfare than alley/lane in village/town/city AHD/W7
streusel n crumbly pastry topping AHD
strew vb.trans to spread by scattering AHD/W7
stroma n supporting framework of animal organ AHD/W7
stromatolite n sedimentary structure of laminated carbonate/silicate rock AHD
structure n construction, action of building AHD/W7
substratum n foundation, underlying support AHD/W7
substruction n substructure, underlying/supporting part of fabrication AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: strē n straw ASD
strēte n street, road ASD
strewa vb to strew ASD
Old Dutch: strande n.neut strand ASD
Dutch: strand n strand TLL
Old Saxon: strāta n street, road ASD
strōedun, streidun vb to strew ASD
Old Low German: streidin vb to strew ASD
strō n straw ASD
Old High German: gistriuni n gain W7
stirna n forehead W7
strāza n street W7
stre(u)wen vb to strew, sprinkle RPN
strō, strao n straw ASD/W7
strouwen vb to strew, sprinkle RPN
Middle High German: strant n.masc strand ASD
strousel n something strewn AHD
German: Bremsstrahlung n.fem bremsstrahlung W7
Stirn n.fem forehead LRC
Strand n.masc strand ASD
Strasse n.fem street LRC
streuen vb to strew LRC
Streusel n.masc/neut dust, litter; sprinkling, streusel AHD
Stroh n.neut straw LRC
Strohhalm n.neut drinking straw LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: strönd n strand W7
Old Icelandic: strá vb to strew, cover with (straw) RPN
Icelandic: strá n straw ASD
strá vb to strew ASD
strönd n.fem strand ASD
Danish: strand n strand TLL
stræde n lane TLL
Swedish: strand n strand, bank TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: straujan vb to strew, spread out RPN
Old Latin: indostruus adj diligent W7
-struus afx built, instituted W7
Latin: constructus vb.ptc built W7
construo, construere vb to build, construct W7
destruo, destruere vb to destroy, tear down W7
industria n.fem diligence W7
industrius adj diligent W7
instructus, instructa, instructum adj/vb.ptc ready, arranged, built in LRC
instrumentum n.neut instrument W7
instruo, instruere vb to arrange, build up; equip, instruct W7
obstructus vb.ptc obstructed W7
obstruo, obstruere vb to obstruct W7
prosterno, prosternere vb to bow down, throw down W7
prostratus vb.ptc spread out, thrown down W7
sterno, sternere vb to spread/stretch out RPN
stratus vb.ptc spread out W7
stroma n.neut bed covering W7
structura n.fem structure W7
structus vb.ptc built W7
struēs n heap RPN
struo, struere vb to build, pile up, put together RPN
substerno, substernere vb to spread under W7
substratus vb.ptc built under W7
substructio, substructionis n.fem construction under W7
substructus vb.ptc built under W7
substruo, substruere vb to build beneath W7
Vulgar Latin: destrugere vb to destroy W7
extrago, extragāre vb to wander outside W7
Late Latin: strata n.fem street, paved road W7
Medieval Latin: substratum n.neut substratum W7
New Latin: sternum n.neut breastbone W7
stratus vb.ptc spreaded W7
Old French: destruire vb to destroy W7
estraié vb.ptc stray W7
estraier vb to stray, wander W7
Middle French: industrie n.fem (employment involving) skill W7
Italian: strada n street TLL
Old Church Slavonic: pro-stьrǫ, pro-strěti vb to stretch RPN
strana n.fem area, region, country; (pl) heathen LRC
stranьnъ adj strange, foreign LRC
stroiti, strojǫ, stroiši vb to prepare, arrange LRC
Old Russian: strojĭ n order AHD
Albanian: shtrij vb to spread out RPN
Homeric Greek: στέρνον n.neut chest, breast(bone) LRC
στορέννῡμι vb to strew, spread, lay (a bed) RPN
στρατόομαι vb to be encamped, take the field LRC
στρατός n.masc host, army LRC
στρώννῡμι vb to strew, spread, lay (a bed) RPN
Greek: stornynai vb to spread out W7
στρατεία n.fem expedition LRC
στρατεύω vb to attack, take the field LRC
στρατηγός n.masc general LRC
στρατία n.fem host LRC
στρατιώτης n.masc soldier LRC
strōma n.neut bed covering W7
Avestan: stərənāti vb to stretch, spread, extend RPN
Sanskrit: stīrṇá-ḥ vb.past.pass.ptc spread, strewn, scattered RPN
stṛṇā́ti vb to strew, scatter, spread out RPN
stṛṇóti vb to strew, scatter, spread out RPN
stṛtá-ḥ vb.past.pass.ptc bestrewn, covered RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pass=passive (voice)
past=past (tense)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)
wk=weak (inflection)
1=1st person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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