Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: su̯em-   'to swim, move'

Semantic Field(s): to Swim, to Move


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: sund n.neut sound, sea; swimming LRC
sundlīne n.fem sounding line W7
swimman, swamm, swummon, swummen vb.str to swim ASD/W7
Middle English: sound n sound W7
sounden vb to sound W7
swimmen vb to swim W7
English: radiosonde n instrument aloft gathering/transmitting meteorological data AHD
rocketsonde n meteorological instrument transported aloft by rocket AHD
sound n long broad inlet of sea/ocean AHD/W7
sound vb to fathom, measure depth of AHD/W7
swim, swam, swum vb.str to move oneself in water AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: swimman vb to swim W7
German: schwimmen vb to swim LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: sund n sound, strait; swimming W7
Icelandic: sund n sound; swimming ASD
svimma vb to swim ASD
Danish: sund n sound, strait ASD
Swedish: sund n sound, strait ASD
Middle French: sonder vb to sound, drag W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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