Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: su̯en-   'to sound, resound'

Semantic Field(s): Sound (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: swinn n.masc sound, melody W7
Middle English: consonant adj/n consonant W7
resounen vb to resound W7
soun n sound W7
swan n swan W7
English: assonance n resemblance of sound AHD/W7
consonant adj being in harmony/agreement AHD/W7
consonant n speech sound involving closure/constriction of vocal tract AHD/W7
dissonant adj discordant, marked by disagreement AHD/W7
resound vb to reverberate, become filled with sound AHD/W7
sonant adj voiced AHD/W7
sonata n instrumental music with movements in contrasting keys/forms AHD/W7
sone n subjective unit of loudness AHD/W7
sonic adj re: sound within audible frequency range AHD/W7
sonnet n verse form of 14 lines AHD/W7
sonorous adj producing sound AHD/W7
sound n sensation perceived by sense of hearing AHD/W7
sound vb to make/emit sound W7
swan n long-necked white aquatic bird AHD/W7
unison n identity in musical pitch AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle High German: swan n swan W7
German: Schwan n.masc swan LRC
Latin: assono, assonare vb to answer with same sound W7
consonans, consonantis adj/vb.ptc consonant, harmonious W7
consono, consonare vb to agree, lit. sound together W7
dissonans, dissonantis adj/vb.ptc dissonant W7
dissono, dissonare vb to be discordant W7
resono, resonāre vb to resound W7
sonans, sonantis vb.pres.ptc sounding W7
sonitus, sonitus n.masc sound LRC
sonō, sonāre, sonuī, sonitus vb to sound, pronounce LRC
sonorus adj loud, sonorous W7
sonus n.masc sound W7
Medieval Latin: unisonus adj having the same sound W7
Portuguese: assonancia n assonance CDC
Spanish: asonancia n assonance CDC
Old French: son n.masc sound W7
Middle French: dissonant adj dissonant W7
resoner vb to resound W7
unison n.fem unison W7
French: assonance n.fem assonance W7
sonnet n sonnet TLL
Old Provençal: son n.masc sound, song W7
sonet n.masc.dim sonnet, little song W7
Italian: sonare vb to sound W7
sonata n.fem sonata W7
sonetto n.masc.dim sonnet W7
Sanskrit: svanati vb to sound W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pres=present (tense)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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