PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes
Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.
Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.
All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.
Pokorny Etymon: 1. su̯er-, also ser-? 'to speak, swear, answer'
Semantic Field(s): to Speak, Talk
|Old English:||andswaru||n.fem||answer, response||LRC|
|swerian, swōr, swōron, sworen||vb.str||to swear||W7/ASD|
|English:||answer||n||response to question||AHD/W7|
|answer||vb||to respond to question||LRC|
|swear, swore, sworn||vb.str||to take/utter (oath) solemnly||AHD/W7|
|Old Frisian:||swara, swer(i)a||vb||to swear, make oath||ASD|
|Old Saxon:||swerian||vb||to swear, make oath||ASD|
|Old High German:||swer(i)en||vb||to swear||W7/ASD|
|svara, svarað||vb||to answer||LRC|
|Icelandic:||sverja||vb||to swear, make oath||ASD|
|Gothic:||swaran||vb||to swear, make oath||ASD|
Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:
Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):
|AHD||=||Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)|
|ASD||=||Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)|
|LRC||=||Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin|
|W7||=||Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)|