Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. su̯er-   'to buzz, hiss'

Semantic Field(s): Sound (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: swearm, swearrn n.masc swarm, crowd W7
Middle English: swarm n swarm W7
English: absurd adj ridiculously unsound/incongruous/unreasonable AHD/W7
hyrax n shrewmouse, small ungulate mammal AHD/W7
sordino n mute AHD/W7
soricine adj resembling shrew AHD/W7
sourdine n musical instrument with muted tone AHD/W7
surd adj irrational AHD/W7
susurration n murmur, soft rustling/whispering sound AHD
swarm n great number (e.g. of bees) AHD/W7
swirl vb to eddy, move with twisting/whirling motion AHD
West Germanic  
Dutch: zwerm n.masc swarm, crowd ASD
Old High German: swar(a)m n.masc swarm ASD/W7
German: Schwarm n.masc swarm LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: svarmr n.masc swarm, tumult ASD
Danish: sværm n.masc swarm, rioting ASD
Swedish: swärm n.masc swarm ASD
Latin: absurdus, absurda, absurdum adj absurd, silly W7
sorex, soricis n.masc mouse W7
soricinus adj re: mice W7
surdus, surda, surdum adj surd, deaf, silent, stupid W7
susurrus n.masc hum W7
Middle French: absurde adj absurd W7
French: sourdine n.fem sordino W7
Italian: sordina n.fem sordino W7
sordino n.masc sordino W7
sordo adj deaf, silent, dull-sounding W7
Greek: hyrax n.masc hyrax W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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