Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: tāg-   'to tidy up'

Semantic Field(s): to Sweep, Pure, Clean


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English: ataxia n confusion, lack of order AHD/W7
hypotaxis n syntactic subordination (e.g. by conjunction) AHD/W7
parataxis n placing words/phrases/clauses without connectives AHD/W7
syntax n connected/orderly system/arrangement AHD/W7
tactics n art/science of disposing/maneuvering combat forces AHD/W7
tagma n distinct adjoining arthropod segments AHD
taxeme n minimal linguistic feature AHD
-taxis n.sfx order, arrangement AHD/W7
taxis n manual restoration of displaced body part AHD/W7
West Germanic  
German: Taktik n.fem tactics LRC
Late Latin: syntaxis n.fem syntax W7
New Latin: hypotaxis n.fem syntactic subordination W7
parataxis n.fem placment side-by-side W7
tactica tactics W7
-taxis sfx touch, -taxis W7
French: syntaxe n.fem syntax: study of sentence organization W7
Lithuanian: patogus adj convenient, comfortable LD/W7
Greek: a-taxia n.fem disorder W7
para-taxis n.fem placing side-by-side W7
παρα-τάσσω vb to place side-by-side LRC
syn-taxis n.fem syntax W7
συν-τάσσω vb to arrange together LRC
taktika tactics W7
taktikos adj tactical, re: order W7
taxis n.fem placing, arrangement, disposition W7
τάσσω vb to arrange, put in order LRC
hypo-taxis n.fem subjection W7
ὑπο-τάσσω vb to arrange under LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at