Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. tel-, telə-, tlē(i)-, tlā-   'to bear, carry; weigh, lift up'

Semantic Field(s): to Bear, Carry, to Lift, Raise


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: tláith adj tender, weak RPN
tlenaim vb to take away, carry off RPN
tulach n hill RPN
Welsh: tlawd adj poor RPN
Old English: talente n.fem talent W7
þolian, þolade, þolad vb.wk.II to thole, hold out LRC
Middle English: extollen vb to extol W7
prelat n prelate W7
superlatif adj superlative W7
talent n talent (weight) W7
tholen vb to thole W7
toll n toll W7
English: ablate vb to remove (e.g. by cutting/melting/eroding) W7
ablation n removal (e.g. by surgery) AHD/W7
ablative adj (grammatical case) re: cause/source etc. AHD/W7
allative adj (grammatical case) re: motion toward AHD
collate vb to examine critically, bring together and compare AHD/CDC
dilatory adj tending/intended to cause delay AHD/W7
elate vb.trans to fill with joy/pride AHD/W7
elative adj comparative/superlative, re: superiority AHD
extol vb.trans to glorify, praise highly AHD/W7
illation n inference, conclusion, act of inferring AHD/W7
illative adj re: illation AHD
legislator n one who makes laws for political unit AHD/W7
oblate adj flattened/depressed at poles AHD/W7
philately n study/collection of postage stamps AHD/W7
prelate n ecclesiastic of superior rank AHD/W7
prolate adj extended AHD/W7
relate vb to tell, give account AHD/W7
retaliate vb to repay (e.g. injury) in kind AHD/W7
sublate vb.trans to deny, negate AHD/W7
superlative adj re: grammatical comparison denoting extreme/unsurpassed level/extent AHD/W7
talent n ancient unit of weight AHD/W7
talion n punishment identical to offense AHD
tantalize vb to tease/torment by frustrating induced expectation AHD/CDC
telamon n male figure used as supporting column/pilaster AHD/W7
thole vb to bear, suffer, endure W7
tola n unit of weight (India) AHD/W7
tolerate vb.trans to endure/resist without grave/lasting injury AHD/W7
toll n tax/fee paid for liberty/privilege AHD/W7
translate vb to carry, transfer; transform, change from one form/state/appearance/place to another AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: tholia vb to thole ASD
Old Saxon: tholian, tholōn vb to thole, hold out ASD
Old Low German: tholōn vb to thole; check, allow, support ASD
Old High German: dolēn, dolōn vb to thole; allow, support ASD
talenta n.fem.str talent ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: tollr n toll W7
Old Icelandic: þola vb to thole RPN
Icelandic: þola vb to thole ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: þulan vb.wk.III to thole, tolerate LRC
Old Latin: tulō vb to bear, carry RPN
Latin: ablātivus adj ablative AHD
ablātus vb.ptc ablated, carried away AHD
elatus vb.ptc elevated, carried out W7
extollo, extollere vb to exalt, lift out W7
illatio n.fem action of bringing in W7
illatus vb.ptc brought in W7
lator n.masc proposer W7
lātus vb.supp.ptc borne, carried LRC
praelatus vb.supp.ptc preferred, put before W7
prolatus vb.supp.ptc brought forward W7
relatus vb.supp.ptc brought back W7
sublatus vb.supp.ptc taken away, lifted up W7
superlatus vb.supp.ptc raised high W7
talentum n.neut unit of weight/money W7
Telamon prop.n.masc Telamon W7
(te)tulī vb.pret bore, carried LRC
toleratus vb.ptc tolerated W7
tolerō, tolerāre vb to bear, endure, sustain RPN
tollō, tollere, tulī, lātum vb to raise, lift up, carry away RPN
translatus vb.supp.ptc translated, carried across W7
Vulgar Latin: tolonium n.neut custom-house W7
Late Latin: dilatorius adj causing delay W7
illatio, illationis n.fem act of inferring W7
retaliatus vb.ptc repaid, retaliated W7
retalio, retaliāre vb to repay W7
superlativus adj superlative W7
talio n.masc legal retaliation W7
telonium n.neut custom-house W7
Medieval Latin: praelatus n.masc one receiving preference W7
New Latin: oblātus vb.supp.ptc oblate W7
prolātus vb.supp.ptc prolate W7
Old French: prelat n.masc prelate W7
Middle French: superlatif adj superlative W7
French: philatélie n.fem philately W7
Greek: ἀνατολή n.fem east LRC
ἀτέλεια n.fem tax exemption LRC
ἀτελής adj free from tax/tribute LRC
τάλαντον n.neut scale, balance, unit of weight/money RPN
τελᾰμών n.masc bearer, supporter; carrying-strap LS
τελέω vb to fulfill, complete, execute LRC
τέλος n.neut tax; end, completion, fulfillment LRC
τελώνης n.masc tax/toll-collector LRC
τελώνιον n.neut toll/custom-house LRC
τλήμων adj patient, enduring, suffering LRC
τλῆναι vb to bear, endure, suffer RPN
τόλμᾰ n.fem courage, boldness LRC
τύλη n.fem callous lump RPN
τύλος n.masc knob, knot, callus RPN
Kashmiri: tul n weight, balance RPN
tulun vb to lift RPN
Sanskrit: tulayati vb to raise, lift up, weigh RPN
tulā́ n scale, balance RPN
tulā n weight W7
Bengali: tulā vb to raise, weigh RPN
tul n scale, balance RPN
Hindi: tolā n unit of weight (India) W7
Tocharian B: täl- vb to lift, raise; acquire RPN
talle n load, burden RPN
Tocharian A: täl- vb to lift, raise RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pret=preterite (tense)
str=strong (inflection)
supp=suppletive (form)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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