Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. tenk-   'to span, extend; pull, stretch'

Semantic Field(s): to Draw, Pull, to Stretch


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hūsting n.neut hustings W7
þing n.neut thing, assembly W7
Middle English: hustings hustings W7
thing n thing W7
English: dingus n thing/object of unknown/forgotten name AHD/W7
hustings local municipal court AHD/W7
thing n event, affair, matter of concern AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: thing n.neut thing, court, meeting ASD
Dutch: dinges n dingus W7
Old Saxon: thing n.neut thing ASD
thing-hūs n.neut court-house ASD
Old High German: ding n.fem thing, nature, meeting, assembly ASD/W7
German: Ding n.neut thing W7
Dings n.neut dingus W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: hūsþing n.neut hustings, lit. house-assembly W7
þing n.neut thing, (legal) assembly LRC
Icelandic: þing n.fem thing, meeting, assembly ASD
þing things, articles ASD
Norwegian: stor-thing n.fem parliament ASD
Swedish: ting n thing TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: þeihs n.neut time, occasion RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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