Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. tenk-   'to clot, thicken, contract; tight, solid'

Semantic Field(s): Thick (in Density), Hard


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: geþēon, geþāh, geþigon, geþigen vb.str.I to thrive, prosper LRC
geðungen adj grown, advanced; noble, excellent ASD
ðengel n.masc prince IEW/ASD
þingan vb to invite, address; prosper, flourish RPN
þō(h)e, þō n.fem clay KEW/ASD
Middle English: t(h)ight adj tight W7
English: tangle n large seaweed AHD/W7
Thengel prop.n 16th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
tight adj re: firm compact texture AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: giþungan adj grown, advanced; noble, excellent ASD
Old High German: dāha n clay KDW
dingen vb to bring together ASD
gi-dingen vb to address ASD
Middle High German: dīhte adj thick W7
German: dicht adj thick, tight, close LRC
Dichte n.fem thickness, density LRC
Ton n clay TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: þang n kelp W7
þēttr adj tight W7
þöngull n tangle, seaweed W7
Old Icelandic: þengill n king, lord, prince, captain IEW
Icelandic: þā n muddy ground ASD
þengill n.masc prince ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: þāhō n clay KGW
þeihan vb.str.I to thrive, prosper LRC
Lithuanian: teĩkti, teĩkia, teĩkė vb to give, render LRC
tìkras, tikrà adj genuine LRC
Sanskrit: tanakti vb to cause to coagulate W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KGW=Gerhard Köbler: Gotisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (1989)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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