Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. ter-, terə-, and teri-, trēi-, trī-, also teru- : treu-   'to bore, drill, rub, thresh'

Semantic Field(s): to Bore, to Rub


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Scots Gaelic: truaghan n.masc wretch W7/GE
Old English: trūht n trout W7
turnian, tyrnan vb to turn W7
þerscold, þrescwald n.masc threshold W7
þrǣd n.masc thread W7
þrāwan vb.str to throw, cause to twist/turn W7/ASD
þrēa n.fem threat, rebuke, reproof, infliction IEW/ASD
þrescan vb to thresh W7
ðrōwian, ðrōwade, ðrōwad vb.wk.II to suffer, endure LRC
Middle English: attournen vb to attorn W7
attourney, atturny, aturne(ye) n attorney W7/CDC
attricioun n attrition W7
contrit adj contrite W7
detriment n detriment W7
drage, drege n dredge W7
retournen vb to return W7
septentrion n septentrion W7
thrawen vb to throw W7
thred n thread W7
thresshen vb to thresh W7
thresshold n threshold W7
throwen vb to throw, cause to twist W7
trepane n trepan W7
tribulacion n tribulation W7
trout n trout W7
truant n truant W7
turn n circuit W7
turnen vb to turn W7
English: atresia n closure/absence of body tube/orifice AHD
attorn vb.intrans to agree to be tenant to new owner/landlord of same property AHD/W7
attorney n one legally appointed to transact business AHD/W7
attrition n abrasion, rubbing things together AHD/OED
contour n outline of curving/irregular figure AHD/W7
contrite adj grieving/penitent for sin/shortcoming AHD/W7
derma n dermis: sensitive mesodermic skin layer AHD/W7
detour n deviation from direct course/usual procedure AHD/W7
detriment n hurt, damage, injury AHD/W7
diatribe n prolonged discourse AHD/W7
dredge n sweetmeat: food rich in sugar AHD/W7
dredge vb.trans to coat/cover (food) by sprinkling (e.g. with flour) AHD/W7
drill n tool with edged/pointed end for making holes by rotating/striking W7
drill vb to bore/pierce with drill AHD/W7
monotreme n primitive egg-laying mammal AHD
return vb to go/come back again AHD/W7
septentrion n north, northern regions AHD/W7
teredo n shipworm: marine clam AHD/W7
terete adj approx. cylindrical but tapering at both ends AHD/W7
Thráin prop.n Dwarf name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
thrash vb to thresh, separate seeds from straw/husks by beating AHD/W7
thread n filaments twisted together into continuous strand AHD/W7
thresh vb to separate seed from harvested plant AHD/W7
threshold n sill, stone/plank/timber that lies under door AHD/W7
Thrór prop.n Dwarf king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
throw, threw, thrown vb.str to propel through air by forward motion of hand/arm AHD/W7
toreutics n metalworking via carving/chasing/embossing AHD
tour n shift, scheduled turn; visit TLL
trafine, trefine n.obs trephine AHD/W7
trauma n extrinsically caused wound/injury to living tissue AHD/W7
trematode n parasitic flatworm (e.g. fluke) AHD/W7
trepan n trephine AHD/W7
trephine n surgical tool for cutting circular sections AHD/W7
triboelectricity n electrical charge generated by friction AHD/W7
tribology n science of surfaces in relative motion AHD
tribulation n distress/suffering caused by oppression/persecution AHD/W7
trite adj stale, hackneyed from overuse AHD/W7
triturate vb.trans to grind, crush AHD/W7
trogon n nonpasserine tropical bird AHD/W7
trout n fresh-water food fish AHD/W7
truant n one who shirks duty AHD/W7
trypanosome n parasitic flagellate protozoan infesting vertebrates AHD/W7
trypsin n proteolytic enzyme in pancreatic juice AHD/W7
turn n rotation, revolution, act of turning about axis/center AHD/W7
turn vb to rotate, revolve, move around axis/center AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: thrēd n.masc thread ASD
Dutch: draad n.masc thread ASD
draaijen vb to turn, twist ASD
drillen vb to drill W7
Old Low German: thrāan vb to turn, twist ASD
thrād n.masc thread, string ASD
Old High German: drāen vb to turn W7
drājan vb.wk to turn, twist ASD
drāt n.masc thread, wire W7/ASD
dreskan vb to thresh W7
drōen, druoen vb to suffer ASD
German: Draht n.masc thread, wire ASD
drehen vb to turn LRC
dreschen vb to thresh LRC
drillen vb to drill LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: Þráinn prop.n Thráin (Voluspa dwarf) LRC
þreskjöldr n threshold W7
Þrór prop.n Thrór (Voluspa dwarf) LRC
Old Icelandic: þrár adj firm, stubborn, obstinate, tenacious IEW/ICE
Icelandic: þráðr n.masc thread ASD
þresköldr n.masc threshold ASD
Danish: traad n.masc thread ASD
Swedish: tråd n thread TLL
Latin: attero, atterere vb to rub against W7
attritio, attritionis n.fem attrition, action/result of rubbing W7
attritus vb.ptc rubbed against W7
contero, conterere vb to grind, bruise W7
detrimentum n.neut loss, prejudice W7
septentrio n.masc north wind, North W7
septentriones 7 plow oxen, 7 stars of Ursa Major/Minor W7
teredo, teredinis n.fem teredo, wood worm W7
teres, teretis adj rounded, well turned W7
tergeō, tergēre vb to wipe, scour, clean RPN
tergō, tergere vb to wipe, scour, clean RPN
terō, terere vb to rub, wear away RPN
tornō, tornāre vb to turn on a lathe W7
tornus n.masc lathe W7
tragemata sweetmeats W7
tribulatio, tribulationis n.fem distress, suffering, trying experience W7
tribulatus vb.ptc oppressed, afflicted W7
tribulo, tribulāre vb to press, oppress W7
tribulum n.neut threshing sledge W7
triones plow oxen, stars of Ursa Major/Ursa Minor W7
trīticum n wheat LRC
tritura n.fem threshing, act of rubbing W7
tritus vb.ptc rubbed W7
Late Latin: trituratus vb.ptc threshed W7
trituro, triturāre vb to thresh W7
trocta, tructa n.fem trout W7
Middle Latin: attornare vb to attorn CDC
Medieval Latin: attritio, attritionis n.fem attrition W7
trepanum n.neut trepan, tool for mining W7
New Latin: derma n.fem skin layer W7
trogon n.neut trogon W7
Trypanosoma n.fem (genus name for) trypanosome W7
Portuguese: trigo n wheat LRC
Spanish: alrededor adv around TLL
trigo n wheat LRC
Old French: at(t)orne n attorney CDC
at(t)orner, at(o)urner vb to attorn W7/CDC
attrition n attrition AHD
destor n.masc detour, diversion W7
destorner vb to divert W7
torner vb to turn W7
tour(n) n.masc turn, lathe, ring, circuit W7
tribulacion n.fem tribulation, trying experience W7
Middle French: atorné vb.ptc legally appointed W7
atorner vb to appoint as attorney W7
contrit adj contrite W7
détriment n.masc detriment, impairment W7
dragie n.fem candy W7
retourner vb to turn back W7
septentrion n.masc the North W7
tourner vb to turn W7
French: attrition n attrition CDC
autour adv around TLL
contour n.masc contour, outline W7
détour n.masc detour, diversion W7
tourner vb to turn W7
tréphine n.fem trephine W7
Italian: attorno adv around TLL
contornare vb to round off, sketch in outline W7
contorno n.masc contour W7
Lithuanian: tárpas n.masc space, period LRC
tráukti, tráukia, tráukė vb to attract LRC
trinù, trìnti vb to rub RPN
Latvian: starp adv among, between LRC
Old Church Slavonic: tьrǫ, trěti vb to rub, wear down RPN
Greek: διατρῐβή n.fem delay; pastime, amusement LS
δια-τρίβω vb to spend time, lit. rub between LS
τείρω vb to rub hard, wear away RPN
τερηδών n.fem teredo, wood worm LS
τετραίνω vb to bore, pierce, perforate LS
τόρνος n.masc (carpenter's) compass LS
τράγημα n.neut dessert, sweetmeat LS
τρᾰγῳδία n.fem tragedy LRC
τραῦμα n.neut trauma, damage, defeat LS
τρῆμα n.neut hole, orifice, perforation LS
trēmatōdēs adj pierced with holes W7
τρίβω vb to rub, thresh, wear out LRC
τρύπᾰνον n.neut trepan, auger, piercing instrument LS
τρῡπάω vb to bore, pierce LS
τρύπη n.fem hole LS
τρύω vb to rub down, wear out RPN
τρώγω vb to gnaw, nibble LS
τρώκτης n.masc gnawer, nibbler LS


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GE=Colin Mark: The Gaelic-English Dictionary (2003)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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