Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. ter-, terə- : tr̥̄-, trā-, teru-   'to cross, get over, etc.'

Semantic Field(s): Bridge


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: tungeþrum n tongue ligament W7
Middle English: determinen vb to determine W7
terme n term, boundary W7
thrum n thrum W7
English: determine vb to fix conclusively/authoritatively AHD/W7
exterminate vb.trans to annihilate, get rid of completely AHD/W7
term n end, boundary, termination AHD/W7
terminate vb to close, bring to end AHD/W7
terminus n final goal, finishing point AHD/W7
thrum n warp thread fringe left on loom after cloth is removed AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: drum n fragment W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: þrǫmr n.masc edge, rim (of shield) LRC
Latin: dēterminō, dētermināre vb to determine W7
exterminatus vb.ptc exterminated W7
exterminō, extermināre vb to exterminate W7
intrō, intrāre vb to enter, go into RPN
terminatus vb.ptc finished, limited W7
terminō, termināre vb to finish, limit W7
terminus n.masc term W7
trāns adv/prep over, across RPN
Old French: terme n.masc term W7
Middle French: determiner vb to determine W7
Greek: τέρμων n.masc term LS
Hittite: tar-ah̯-zi to conquer, control, be powerful RPN
Sanskrit: tárati vb to pass over/across/through RPN
tārayati vb.caus to bring over/across/through RPN
tiráḥ adv over, across, through RPN
tū́rvati vb to excel, overpower RPN
trāyáte vb to defend, protect RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
pres=present (tense)
sg=singular (number)
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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