Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 5. ter-   'through, over, etc.'

Semantic Field(s): Path


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: nosþyr(e)l, nosterl n.neut nostril ASD/W7
þurh adv/prep through, by (means of) LRC
ðurhwadan, ðurhwōd, ðurhwōdon, ðurhwaden vb.str.VI to pierce, penetrate LRC
þuruh adv/prep thorough W7
þyrel n.neut hole, orifice, aperture W7
þyr(e)lian vb to pierce, perforate, make hole through W7
Middle English: nosethirl n nostril W7
thirlen vb to pierce W7
thorow adv/prep thorough W7
thrillen vb to pierce W7
through prep through W7
thruh prep through W7
thurh prep through W7
traunsom n transom W7
trenche n trench, track cut through woods W7
tronke n trunk W7
English: avatar n incarnation of Hindu deity AHD/W7
caravansary n caravan stop/inn AHD/W7
lamasery n monastery of lamas AHD/W7
nostril n external naris AHD/W7
seraglio n large harem AHD
serai n inn, khan, choltry, caravansary; seraglio AHD/CDC
thorough arch.adv/prep through AHD/W7
thrill vb to cause to experience sudden sharp excitement AHD/W7
through prep in one side/point and out another AHD/W7
trans- pfx across, beyond, on/to other side of AHD/W7
transact vb to carry out, perform AHD/W7
transcend vb to exceed, go beyond, rise above AHD/W7
transect vb to cut transversely AHD/W7
transmute vb to convert, change/alter in form/nature/appearance AHD/W7
transom n crosspiece, transverse piece in structure AHD/W7
trench n ditch, long cut in ground AHD/W7
truculent adj cruel, fierce, savage AHD/W7
truncate vb.trans to lop, shorten by cutting off AHD/W7
trunk n bole, main stem of tree AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: nosterle n nostril ASD
thruch prep through ASD
Dutch: door prep through TLL
Old Saxon: thurh, thuru prep through ASD
Old Low German: thurh, thuru(o) prep through ASD
Old High German: durh, duruh, durah, dureh prep through ASD/W7
durh-watan vb to pass through ASD
German: durch prep through LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: þairh prep through, by (means of), on account of ASD
Latin: tra(ns)- pfx through, across, beyond, so as to change W7
trans prep across, beyond W7
transigo, transigere, transegi, transactus vb to transact, complete, drive through W7
transtrum n.neut transom, traverse beam W7
truculentus adj mean, grumpy, truculent W7
truncatus vb.ptc cut off W7
truncō, truncāre vb to maim, truncate W7
truncus n.masc trunk, torso W7
trux, trucis adj fierce W7
Spanish: tras- pfx trans- W7
Middle French: trenche n.fem act of cutting W7
trenchier vb to cut W7
tronc n.masc trunk W7
French: lamaserie n.fem lamasery W7
Italian: serraglio n seraglio, enclosure W7
tra prep between, among TLL
Persian: kārwānsarāī n caravansary W7
sarāī n palace, serai: inn W7
Sanskrit: avatarati vb to descend W7
avatāra n descent W7
tarati, tirati vb to cross over AHD/W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VI=class 6
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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