Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: terp-, trep-   'to enjoy, satisfy oneself'

Semantic Field(s): Glad, Joyful, to Please


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ðearf n.fem need, requirement LRC
English: Euterpe prop.n Muse of music/lyric poetry, esp. flute playing (Greek mythology) LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: therve n.fem need ASD
Old Low German: therva n.fem need ASD
Old High German: darba n.fem need ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: þurfa, þarf, þurfta vb to need, be necessary LRC
þǫrf n.fem need, lack LRC
Icelandic: þörf n.fem need ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: þarba n.fem need, want ASD
þaúrban vb.ptpr to need, be in want LRC
þrafstjan vb to console, comfort RPN
Latin: Euterpe prop.n.fem Euterpe W7
Lithuanian: tar̃pti, tar̃psta, tar̃po vb to thrive, grow luxuriantly LRC
Greek: εὐ-τερπής adj delightful LRC
τέρπω vb to delight, satisfy RPN
Sanskrit: tṛ́pyati vb to delight, satisfy RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
ptpr=preterite-present (verb)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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