Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ters-   'to toast, dry; thirst'

Semantic Field(s): Dry, Arid, Thirst (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: tur adj dry, dried out RPN
Old English: þurst n.masc thirst W7
þyrre adj dry, withered RPN
Middle English: enteren vb to inter W7
fumeterre n fumitory W7
terrene adj terrene W7
terrestrial adj terrestrial W7
territory n territory W7
thirst n thirst W7
tosten vb to toast W7
English: cusk n tusk: N Atlantic coastal food fish AHD
fumitory n family of erect/climbing herbs AHD/W7
inter vb.trans to bury, deposit (body) in earth/tomb AHD/W7
parterre n ornamental garden having paths between beds AHD/W7
subterranean adj being/lying/operating under earth's surface AHD/W7
tarsus n part of vertebrate foot between leg/metatarsus AHD/W7
terrace n colonnaded porch/promenade AHD/W7
terrain n region, geographical area AHD/W7
terraqueous adj re: land and water AHD/W7
terrene adj earthly, mundane AHD/W7
terrestrial adj re: earth/its inhabitants AHD/W7
terre-verte n olive-green pigment AHD
terricolous adj living on/in ground AHD/W7
terrier n small dog (breed) AHD/W7
terrigenous adj formed by erosive action of tides/currents/rivers AHD/W7
territory n geographic area under governmental authority AHD/W7
thirst n sensation of dryness in mouth/throat AHD/W7
toast vb to make (e.g. bread) crisp/brown via heat AHD/W7
torrent n violent stream of liquid (e.g. water/lava) AHD/W7
torrid adj hot, parched with (sun's) heat AHD/W7
tureen n deep bowl for serving food (e.g. soup) AHD/W7
turmeric n aromatic herb of E India AHD/W7
tusk n (kind of) codfish AHD
verditer n copper carbonate used as pigment AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: thurst n.masc thirst ASD
Old Low German: thurritha adj dryness ASD
Old High German: durri adj dry, arid, parched ASD
durst n.masc thirst W7/ASD
German: Dorsch n cod LRC
Durst n.masc thirst LRC
Kartoffel n.fem potato TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: þerra n.fem towel LRC
þorskr n cod KNW
Icelandic: þorsti n.masc thirst ASD
þurr adj dry, lacking water ASD
Norwegian: to(r)sk n tusk AHD
tusk n.dial tusk AHD
Danish: kartoffel n potato TLL
torsk n cod TLL
Swedish: torsk n cod TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: gaþaúrsnan vb.wk.IV to be withered LRC
þaursjan vb to be thirsty RPN
þaurstei n.masc thirst ASD
þaursus adj dry, withered RPN
Oscan: teerún, terún n earth RPN
Latin: praetorium n.neut territory of praetorians W7
subterraneus, subterranei adj underground LRC
terra, terrae n.fem earth, land LRC
terrenus adj of earth W7
terrestris adj of the earth W7
terricola n.fem earth dweller W7
terrigena n.fem earth-born W7
territorium n.neut territory, land around town W7
-torium n.sfx place for (something) W7
torrens, torrentis vb.ptc burning, seething, rushing W7
torreō, torrēre vb to bake, parch, dry up RPN
torridus adj torrid, burnt, parched RPN
tostus vb.ptc parched, roasted W7
Vulgar Latin: interro, interrare vb to bury (a body) W7
terrinus n.masc earth, terrain W7
Late Latin: tosto, tostāre vb to roast W7
Medieval Latin: terrarius n.masc terrier; hole in ground (where small animals live) W7
New Latin: tarsus n.masc wicker-work mat; flat of foot, ankle, edge of eyelid W7
Old French: enterrer vb to bury W7
Middle French: fumeterre n.fem smoke of the earth W7
parterre n.masc lawn, parterre W7
terrace n.fem terrace W7
terrin adj of earth W7
toster vb to roast W7
French: parterre n.masc parterre; rows of seat directly before stage in concert hall W7
terrain n.masc land, humus W7
terrier n.masc type of dog; hole in ground (where small animals live) W7
terrine n.fem tureen, earthen vessel W7
torrent n.masc torrent, rushing waterfall W7
Old Provençal: terra n.fem earth W7
terrassa n.fem meadow W7
Italian: tartufo n truffle LRC
Greek: ταρσός n.masc crate, wicker-work mat/frame; broad flat surface LS
τέρσομαι vb to be(come) dry RPN
Avestan: taršu- adj parched, arid, dried up RPN
Sanskrit: tṛṣṭá-ḥ adj dry, rough RPN
tṛ́ṣyati vb to thirst RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
IV=class 4
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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