Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. teu-   'to notice, observe, listen to'

Semantic Field(s): to Sense, Perceive; Sense, to Listen, Harken


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: þēaw n.masc thew; habit, custom, disposition LRC
Middle English: thew n thew W7
tuicioun n tuition, protection W7
tutor n tutor W7
English: intuition n immediate cognition/apprehension AHD/W7
thew n sinew, muscle AHD/W7
tuition n custody, guardianship AHD/W7
tutelage n guardianship, act of guarding/protecting AHD/W7
tutelary adj being/serving as guardian/protector AHD
tutor n person charged with guidance/instruction AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: thau n.masc custom, usage, general practice ASD
Old High German: dau n.masc custom, usage, general practice ASD
kathau n discipline W7
Latin: intueor, intuērī vb.dep to look at, contemplate W7
intuitus vb.ptc looked at, contemplated W7
tueor, tuērī vb.dep to watch, look at W7
tuitiō, tuitiōnis n.fem guard, protection W7
tuitus vb.ptc protected W7
tutela n.fem guardian, protection W7
tutor n.masc tutor, protector W7
tūtus, tūta, tūtum adj/vb.ptc safe, protected LRC
Late Latin: intuitio, intuitionis n.fem act of contemplating W7
Old French: tuicion n.fem tuition, protection W7
Middle French: tuteur n.masc tutor W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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