Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: tēu-, təu-, teu̯ə-, tu̯ō-, tū̆-   'to swell, intumesce'

Semantic Field(s): to Grow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: tūath n tribe, people LRC
Middle Irish: tarb n.masc bull IED/W7
Cornish: tus n people LRC
Welsh: tūd n country LRC
Gaulish: Toutonos prop.n Teuton(s) GED
Old English: butere n.fem butter, cheese W7
þēod n folk, people LRC
þēod-cyning n.masc lit. folk-king LRC
þēoden n.str.masc king, lord, God GED
þēoh n.neut thigh W7
þēostre, þēoster adj dark ASD
þīestre, þīstre adj dark ASD
þolian vb to bear W7
þol(l) n.masc thole W7
þūma n.masc thumb W7
þūsend nbr.card thousand (1000) W7
þȳmel n.masc thimble, thumbstall, fingerstall W7
Middle English: bitoure n bittern W7
butter n butter W7
Duch prop.adj/n Dutch W7
Taurus prop.n Taurus W7
thigh n thigh W7
tholen vb to thole W7
tholle n thole W7
thoumbe n thumb W7
thoume n thumb W7
thousand nbr.card thousand (1000) W7
thymbyl n thimble W7
tombe n tomb W7
total adj total W7
English: bittern n small/medium-sized nocturnal heron AHD/W7
butter n solid food emulsion made by churning milk/cream AHD/W7
butyric adj re: a certain isomeric fatty acid AHD/W7
creosote n clear/yellowish oily liquid phenolic compounds made from wood tar AHD/W7
detumescence n diminution of swelling AHD/CDC
dictyosome n plant cell Golgi apparatus AHD
Dutch prop.adj/n re: the Netherlands AHD/W7
Éothéod prop.n Eorl's descendants in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
factotum n employee with misc. duties AHD/W7
intumesce vb.intrans to swell, enlarge AHD/W7
obturate vb.trans to close, obstruct AHD/W7
Plattdeutsch prop.n Low German LRC
prosoma n anterior region of invertebrate body AHD/W7
protuberance n knob, bulge, swelling AHD
protuberant adj re: protuberance LRC
protuberate vb to swell, bulge, be prominent/protuberant AHD
quark n soft creamy acid-cured central European cheese AHD
soma n all of organism except germ cells AHD/W7
-some n.sfx body AHD/W7
sorites n abridged series of syllogisms AHD/W7
sorus n clustered plant reproductive bodies AHD/W7
soteriology n theology dealing with salvation AHD/W7
taurine adj bovine, re: bull AHD/W7
taurine n colorless crystalline compound in muscle juices, esp. of invertebrates AHD/W7
taurocholic adj re: deliquescent acid occurring as sodium salt in bile of man/ox/various carnivores AHD/W7
Taurus prop.n zodiacal constellation AHD/W7
teetotum n spinning top/toy (usu. inscribed with letters) AHD/W7
Teuton prop.n person in (ancient) Germanic group LRC
Théoden prop.n 17th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Théodred prop.n Theoden's son in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Théodwyn prop.n Eowyn's mother in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
thigh n segment of vertebrate hind limb from hip to knee AHD/W7
thimble n finger cap/cover used in sewing to push needle AHD/W7
thole n pin, peg, oarlock AHD/W7
thole vb to bear, endure AHD/W7
Thorin prop.n dwarf a.k.a. Oakenshield in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
thousand nbr.card 1000 AHD/W7
thumb n first digit of primate hand (opposable to other fingers) AHD/W7
tomb n grave, cairn, barrow, funeral mound AHD/W7
toreador n torero, bullfighter AHD/W7
torero n toreador, bullfighter AHD/W7
total adj entire, comprising/constituting the whole AHD/W7
truffle n European subterranean edible fruiting fungus body AHD/W7
tuber n short fleshy usu. underground plant stem AHD/W7
tumefacient adj tumefying, producing swelling/tumefaction AHD
tumefy vb to (cause to) swell, become tumorous AHD
tumescent adj somewhat swollen AHD/W7
tumid adj enlarged, swollen, marked by swelling AHD/W7
tumor n swollen/distended part AHD/W7
tumorous adj swollen, protuberant, re: tumor LRC
tumulus n artificial mound/hillock (e.g. over tomb) AHD/W7
tutti adj all AHD/W7
tylectomy n surgical removal of cyst/tumor AHD
tylosis n skin/eyelid inflammation AHD
tyrosine n phenolic amino acid AHD/W7
British English: tumour n tumor LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: thiach n.neut thigh ASD
thiade n.fem men, people ASD
thūma n.masc thumb ASD
thūsend nbr.card thousand (1000) ASD
Middle Dutch: duutsch adj Dutch W7
Dutch: dij n thigh TLL
dol n.masc thole ASD
duim n thumb TLL
duister adj dark LRC
duitsch n German W7
duizend nbr.card thousand (1000) LRC
Platduitsch prop.n Plattdeutsch W7
Old Saxon: thiod(a) n.fem people ASD
thiod-kuning n.masc king, monarch, sovereign ASD
thūsundig nbr.card thousand (1000) ASD
þiodan n.str.masc prince, ruler, people's lord GED
Old Low German: thio n.neut thigh ASD
thūmo n.masc thumb ASD
thūsint nbr.card thousand (1000) ASD
Low German: thiad n.fem nation, people ASD
Old High German: butera n butter W7
dioh n.neut thigh, hip ASD/W7
diot(a) n.fem nation, people ASD
diutisc adj Dutch W7
dūmo n.masc thumb ASD
dūsunt, tūsunt nbr.card thousand (1000) ASD/W7
truhtīn n lord, ruler GED
tysyacha nbr.card thousand (1000) W7
þūmo n thumb W7
German: Butter n.neut butter LRC
Daumen n.masc thumb LRC
Deutsch n.neut German LRC
deutsch adj German LRC
Kartoffel n.fem potato TLL
kreosot adj creosote W7
Plattdeutsch prop.n Plattdeutsch W7
Tausend nbr.card thousand (1000) LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: þoka n cloud LRC
þollr n.masc tree (the ash Yggdrasil); post, pillar; beam LRC
þora(ð) vb to dare LRC
Þorinn prop.n Thorin (Voluspa dwarf) TPE
þorinn n bold/audacious one LRC
þýða, þýðadd vb to interpret as, make equivalent LRC
Old Icelandic: drōttinn n prince GED
þjóð n people LRC
þjōðann n.str.masc king, prince GED
Icelandic: þjóð n.fem nation, people ASD
þjóðann n.masc king, ruler, great man ASD
þjóðkonungr n.masc king, monarch, sovereign ASD
þollr n.masc thole, wooden peg ASD
þumall n.masc thumb (of glove) ASD
þúsund nbr.card.fem thousand (1000) ASD
Danish: kartoffel n potato TLL
taage n fog TLL
tol n.masc thole ASD
tolle-gang n.masc thole, row-lock ASD
tomme n.masc thumb ASD
tommelfinger n thumb TLL
tusinde nbr.card thousand (1000) LRC
Swedish: tumme n.masc thumb ASD
tusen nbr.card thousand (1000) LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: þiuda n.str.fem nation, people; [pl.] heathens, Gentiles LRC
þiudans n.masc chief, prince, king ASD/GED
þiudisko adv like the heathen GED/W7
þūsundi nbr.card thousand (1000) LRC
Oscan: touto n.masc city W7
Umbrian: touto adj whole, entire LRC
Latin: butyrum n.neut butter W7
dominus n.masc lord GED
domus n.fem house GED/IEW
intumesco, intumescere vb to swell up W7
obsturo, obturāre vb to close (with something) W7
obturatus vb.ptc closed with something W7
Portūnus prop.n.masc Portunus (gate/harbor deity) GED
portus n.masc entry, port GED
sorites n.masc type of argument W7
taurinus adj of a bull W7
Taurus prop.n.masc Taurus, lit. Bull W7
taurus n.masc bull W7
Teutoni the Teutons W7
Tiberīnus prop.n.masc Tiberinus GED
Tiberis prop.n Tiber (river) GED
totus, tota, totum adj all, whole, entire LRC
tribūnus n.masc tribune, chieftain GED
tribus n.fem tribe GED
tūber n.neut lump, swelling, protuberance RPN
tumeō, tumēre vb to swell, be swollen RPN
tumescens, tumescentis vb.pres.ptc swelling W7
tumēscō, tumēscere vb to begin swelling W7
tumidus adj swollen W7
tumor n.masc swelling W7
tumulus n.masc tomb W7
Vulgar Latin: tufera n.fem truffle W7
Late Latin: taurarius n.masc bullfighter W7
tumba n.fem tomb W7
Medieval Latin: totalis adj re: wholeness W7
New Latin: factotum n.neut person who does everything W7
prosoma n.fem anterior region of invertebrate body W7
sorus n.masc clustered plant reproductive bodies W7
Spanish: toreador n.masc toreador, bull-fighter W7
torear vb to fight bulls W7
torero adj re: bull(s) W7
toro n.masc bull W7
Anglo-French: tumbe n.fem tomb W7
Middle French: butor n.masc bird of prey W7
total n.masc total W7
truffe n.fem truffle W7
French: butyrique adj re: butter W7
Old Provençal: trufa n.fem truffle W7
Italian: tartufo n truffle LRC
tutto, tutti adj all, whole, every W7
Old Prussian: tauto n country LRC
Lithuanian: taukaĩ n (animal) fat RPN
tumė́ti vb to become thick RPN
tūkstantis nbr.card thousand (1000) LRC
Latvian: tàuta n people LRC
tvaikonis n.masc steamboat LRC
Old Church Slavonic: tvarogŭ n quark, curds, cottage cheese AHD
Russian: tyju vb to become fat LRC
Homeric Greek: σώζω vb to save, preserve, remember LS
σῶς adj safe, sure, sound LS
τῡρός n.masc cheese LS
Greek: βού-τῡρον n.neut butter LS
σῶμα n.neut body LRC
σωρείτης n.masc sorites LS
σωρός n.masc heap LS
σωτήρ n.masc savior, preserver LRC
σωτήριον n.neut salvation LS
σωφροσύνη n.fem discretion, moderation LRC
ταῦρος n.masc bull LRC
τύλος n.masc knob, knot, callus LS
τύμβος n.masc tomb LS
Hittite: tuzzi- n army, people LRC
Armenian: t'iv n number LRC
Avestan: tav- n ability LRC
tūiri- n whey W7
Sanskrit: tavas adj strong RPN
tavīti vb to be strong LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pres=present (tense)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
TPE=Lee M. Hollander: The Poetic Edda (1962)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at