Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. tong-, *teng-   'to think, feel'

Semantic Field(s): to Think, Reflect


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: beþencan vb.wk.I to bethink AHD
or-þanc adj cunning, skillful ASD
or-þanc n.masc/neut device, artifice, skillful work/contrivance ASD
þanc n.masc thought; thanks, grace, mercy, gratitude LRC
þencan, þōhte, þōht vb.wk.I to think, intend, resolve LRC
þōht n.masc mind, thought W7
þyncan, þūhte, geþūht vb.wk.I to seem, appear; think LRC
Middle English: bithinken vb to bethink AHD
thank n thank W7
thenken vb to think W7
thought n thought W7
English: bethink, bethought vb.irr.trans to recall, remember AHD/W7
methinks it seems to me AHD/W7
Orthanc prop.n Saruman's tower in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
thank n gratitude, kindly/grateful thought AHD/W7
think, thought vb.irr to form/have in mind AHD/W7
thought n cogitation, act/process of thinking AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: thank, thonk n.masc thanks, thought, grace, pleasure ASD
thanka, thenkia vb to think ASD
Dutch: danken vb to thank LRC
denken vb to think LRC
gedenkteeken n monument TLL
Old Saxon: thank n.masc thanks, grace, pleasure ASD
thenkian vb to think ASD
thuukian vb to seem, appear ASD
Low German: thenkan, thāhta vb to think ASD
Old High German: dank, danc, thanc n.masc thanks, gratitude ASD/W7
denken, denchen vb to think ASD/W7
dunchan vb to seem, appear ASD
urdanc, urdank n.str.masc idea, invention, fabrication LRC
German: Dank n.masc gratitude LRC
danken vb to thank LRC
denken vb to think LRC
Denkmal n monument TLL
Gedanke n.masc thought LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: þykkja, þótti vb to seem, be thought LRC
Icelandic: þekkja vb to perceive, know ASD
þōttr, þōtti n.masc thought, mind ASD
þykkja vb to seem, appear ASD
þökk n.masc thanks, pleasure ASD
Danish: takke vb to thank LRC
tænke vb to think LRC
Swedish: tacka vb to thank LRC
tänka vb to think LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: þag(g)kjan vb to think, consider, consult, debate ASD
þug(g)kjan vb.wk.I to seem, appear ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
I=class 1
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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