Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: trāgh-, trō̆gh-, and trē̆gh-   'to drag, train, pull, move'

Semantic Field(s): to Draw, Pull, to Move


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: traig n foot RPN
Breton: troad n foot RPN
Old Cornish: truit n foot RPN
Welsh: troed n foot RPN
Old English: þrǣgan vb to run, proceed RPN
þrǣl n.masc thrall W7
þrāg n.fem (period of) time, season RPN
Middle English: atrete adv plainly, straight out MEV
attracten vb to attract W7
contract n contract W7
detracten vb to detract W7
distracten vb to distract W7
extracten vb to extract W7
portraien vb to portray W7
retracten vb to retract W7
thral n thrall W7
tract n tract W7
trailen vb to trail W7
train n train W7
trainen vb to train W7
treten vb to treat W7
English: abstract adj dissociated from specific instance AHD/W7
abstract vb to remove, separate W7
attract vb to cause to approach/adhere AHD/W7
contract n covenant, binding agreement AHD/W7
contract vb to establish/undertake by contract AHD/W7
detract vb to speak ill of AHD/W7
distract vb.trans to divert, turn aside AHD/W7
extract vb.trans to draw forth AHD/W7
portray vb.trans to depict, make picture of AHD/W7
protract vb.trans to defer, delay AHD/W7
retract vb to draw back/in AHD/W7
subtract vb to deduct, take away AHD/W7
thrall n serf, slave, servant W7
tract n pamphlet/leaflet of political/religious propaganda AHD/W7
tractable adj docile, able to be led/taught/controlled easily AHD/W7
traction n act/state of pulling/being drawn AHD/W7
trail vb to hang down dragging/sweeping along ground AHD/W7
train n part of gown trailing behind wearer AHD/W7
train vb to drag, trail AHD/W7
trait n stroke (as) of pencil AHD/W7
treat vb to negotiate, discuss terms of settlement/accommodation AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: drigil n servant RPN
German: abstrahieren vb to abstract LRC
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: þræll n thrall RPN
Icelandic: þrǽll n.masc thrall ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: þragjan vb to run RPN
Latin: abstractus vb.ptc detached, drawn away W7
abstraho, abstrahere vb to detach, draw away W7
attractus vb.ptc attracted, drawn to W7
attraho, attrahere vb to attract, draw to W7
contractus vb.ptc driven, hauled W7
contraho, contrahere vb to draw together, reduce in size; make a contract W7
detractus vb.ptc withdrawn, disparaged W7
detraho, detrahere vb to withdraw, disparage W7
distractus vb.ptc drawn apart W7
distraho, distrahere vb to draw apart W7
extractus vb.ptc drawn out W7
extraho, extrahere vb to draw out W7
protractus vb.ptc drawn forward W7
protraho, protrahere vb to draw forward W7
retractus vb.ptc drawn back W7
retraho, retrahere vb to draw back W7
subtractus vb.ptc subtracted, taken away W7
subtraho, subtrahere vb to withdraw, draw from beneath W7
tractabilis adj tractable W7
tractatus n.masc treatise, management W7
tractō, tractāre vb to draw, drag, tug; treat, handle RPN
tractus, tractūs n.masc traction TLL
tractus vb.ptc dragged W7
tragula n.fem sledge, dragnet W7
trahō, trahere vb to draw, drag, haul RPN
Vulgar Latin: tragino, tragināre vb to drag W7
Medieval Latin: abstractus vb.ptc drawn away, detached W7
New Latin: tractio, tractionis n.fem traction W7
Old French: train n.masc action of dragging W7
traîner vb to drag W7
traitier vb to treat, handle W7
Middle French: contracter vb to agree upon W7
portraire vb to portray W7
trailler vb to tow W7
traîner vb to draw, drag W7
trait n.masc trait, trace, draft W7
Albanian: kontratë n.fem contract LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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