Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: trē̆b-, trōb-, treb-, or trəb-, tr̥b-   'building, dwelling'

Semantic Field(s): House


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: þorp, þrop n.masc thorp W7
Middle English: thorp n thorp W7
trave n trave W7
English: architrave n entablature resting on capital of column AHD/W7
dorp n thorp AHD/W7
thorp n hamlet, village AHD/W7
trabeated adj designed/constructed of horizontal beams/lintels AHD/W7
trabecula n small bar/rod/fiber bundle/septal membrane in body part/organ AHD/W7
trave n traverse beam AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: thorp, therp n.masc thorp ASD
Middle Dutch: dorp n dorp W7
Dutch: dorp n.masc dorp ASD
Old Low German: thorp, tharp n.masc thorp ASD
Old High German: dorf n.masc dorp, farm, town ASD/W7
German: Dorf n.neut village LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: þorp n.masc thorp ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: þaurp n.masc thorp ASD
Old Latin: trabēs n.fem trave W7
Latin: trabecula n.fem.dim little trave W7
trabs n.fem trave W7
New Latin: trabecula n.fem trabecula W7
Old French: architrave n architrave AHD
Middle French: architrave n.fem trave, architrave W7
trave n.fem trave W7
French: architrave n architrave CDC
Old Italian: architrave n.masc trave, architrave W7
trave n.masc trave W7
Italian: arcitrave n architrave CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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