Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: trem-, trems-   'to shake, tremble; to stomp, trample'

Semantic Field(s): to Shake, to Drop, Foot


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: tremblen vb to tremble W7
tremour n tremor W7
English: tremble vb to shake, shiver (e.g. from cold/disease/weakness) W7
tremendous adj dreadful, inciting awe/dread/terror AHD/W7
tremor n shaking/trembling AHD/W7
tremulous adj re: tremors/trembling AHD/W7
Latin: tremendus vb.ger trembling W7
tremo, tremere vb to quake, shake, tremble RPN
tremor n.masc tremor, agitation W7
tremulus adj tremulous, agitated, shaking W7
Medieval Latin: tremulo, tremulare vb to tremble W7
Middle French: trembler vb to tremble W7
tremour n.fem fear, tremor W7
Old Church Slavonic: tręsǫ, tręsti vb to shake RPN
Homeric Greek: τρέμω vb to tremble, quiver RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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