PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes
Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.
Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.
All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.
Pokorny Etymon: 1. trenk- 'to throng, push, press together'
|Old English:||þrang||n||throng, press||RPN|
|þringan, þrong, þrungon, þrungen||vb.str.III||to throng||LRC|
|Middle English:||thrang, throng||n||throng||W7|
|English:||throng||n||host, crowd, multitude||LRC|
|throng||vb||to pack, press, crowd onto/into||W7|
|Old Saxon:||thringan||vb||to throng||ASD|
|Old High German:||dringan||vb.trans||to throng||ASD|
|Middle High German:||dranc||n||throng||ASD|
|Old Icelandic:||þryngva||vb||to throng, thrust||RPN|
|Avestan:||θraxta-||adj||thronged, crowded together||RPN|
Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:
Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):
|ASD||=||Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)|
|LRC||=||Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin|
|RPN||=||Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)|
|W7||=||Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)|