Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. trenk-   'to throng, push, press together'

Semantic Field(s): to Push, Shove, to Press


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: þrang n throng, press RPN
þringan, þrong, þrungon, þrungen vb.str.III to throng LRC
Middle English: thrang, throng n throng W7
English: throng n host, crowd, multitude LRC
throng vb to pack, press, crowd onto/into W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: drang n throng ASD
Old Saxon: thringan vb to throng ASD
Old High German: dringan vb.trans to throng ASD
Middle High German: dranc n throng ASD
dringen vb to throng RPN
German: Drang n.masc throng LRC
drängen vb to throng LRC
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: þryngva vb to throng, thrust RPN
þröng n throng RPN
þrøngva vb to throng RPN
Icelandic: þryngva vb.trans to throng ASD
þröng n throng ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: þreihan vb to throng RPN
Avestan: θraxta- adj thronged, crowded together RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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