Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯adh-   'pledge'

Semantic Field(s): Oath


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wedd n.neut pledge W7
weddian vb.wk to wed, engage, covenant, undertake ASD/W7
Middle English: engagen vb to engage W7
gage n gage W7
morgage n mortgage W7
wage n wage, pledge W7
wagen vb to pledge, give as security W7
wager n bet, pledge W7
wedden vb to wed W7
English: degage adj nonchalant, free of constraint AHD/W7
engage vb to offer as security for debt/cause AHD/W7
gage n token of defiance AHD/W7
mortgage n conveyance of property upon terms AHD/W7
praedial adj landed, re: land AHD
wage n payment for labor/services AHD/W7
wage vb to engage in/carry on AHD/W7
wager n stake, something risked on uncertain event AHD/W7
wed, wed vb.wk to marry, take for wife/husband AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: wed n.neut pledge ASD
weddia vb to pledge, promise ASD
Old Low German: weddi n.neut pledge ASD
Old High German: wetti n.neut pledge, agreement ASD/W7
Middle High German: wetten vb to pledge W7
German: Wette n.fem bet, wager; rivalry LRC
wetten vb to bet, wager LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: veð n.neut pledge ASD
veðja vb to wager ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: ga-wadjon vb.wk to pledge, promise GED
wadi n.neut pledge, guarantee GED/W7
Latin: vas, vadis n.fem bail, surety, security W7
Old French: desgagier vb to redeem a pledge W7
engagier vb to engage W7
gage n.masc pledge W7
Old North French: wage n wage, pledge W7
wagier vb to wage, pledge W7
Anglo-French: wageure n.fem wage, pledge W7
Middle French: engagier vb to engage W7
morgage n.masc mortgage W7
French: dégager vb to free, clear up, redeem a pledge W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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